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Charles W. Morris
This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 368 pages of information about The San Francisco calamity by earthquake and fire.

The eruptions of this mountain have been numerous, records of them extending back to several centuries before the Christian era, while unrecorded ones doubtless took place much further back.  After the beginning of the Christian era, and more especially after the breaking forth of Vesuvius in 79 A. D., Etna enjoyed longer intervals of repose.  Its eruptions since that time have nevertheless been numerous—­more especially during the intervals when Vesuvius was inactive—­there being a sort of alternation between the periods of great activity of the two mountains; although there are not a few instances of their having been both in action at the same time.

SIMILARITY IN ETNA’S ERUPTIONS

There is a great similarity in the character of the eruptions of Etna.  Earthquakes presage the outburst, loud explosions follow, rifts and bocche del fuoco open in the sides of the mountain; smoke, sand, ashes and scoriae are discharged, the action localizes itself in one or more craters, cinders are thrown up and accumulate around the crater and cone, ultimately lava rises and frequently breaks down one side of the cone where the resistance is least; then the eruption is at an end.

Smyth says:  “The symptoms which precede an eruption are generally irregular clouds of smoke, ferilli or volcanic lightnings, hollow intonations and local earthquakes that often alarm the surrounding country as far as Messina, and have given the whole province the name of Val Demone, as being the abode of infernal spirits.  These agitations increase until the vast cauldron becomes surcharged with the fused minerals, when, if the convulsion is not sufficiently powerful to force them from the great crater (which, from its great altitude and the weight of the candent matter, requires an uncommon effort), they explode through that part of the side which offers the least resistance with a grand and terrific effect, throwing red-hot stones and flakes of fire to an incredible height, and spreading ignited cinders and ashes in every direction.”

After the eruption of ashes, lava frequently follows, sometimes rising to the top of the cone of cinders, at others disrupting it on the least resisting side.  When the lava has reached the base of the cone it begins to flow down the mountain, and, being then in a very fluid state, it moves with great velocity.  As it cools, the sides and surface begin to harden, its velocity decreases, and after several days it moves only a few yards an hour.  The internal portions, however, part slowly with their heat, and months after the eruption clouds of steam arise from the black and externally cold lava-beds after rain; which, having penetrated through the cracks, has found its way to the heated mass within.

THE ERUPTION OF 1669

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