12. In Akbar’s time there were thirty-three grades of official rank, and the officers were known as ‘commanders of ten thousand’, ‘commanders of five thousand’, and so on. Only princes of the blood royal were granted the commands of seven thousand and of ten thousand. The number of troopers actually provided by each officer did not correspond with the number indicated by his title. The graded officials were called mansabdars, no clear distinction between civil and military duties being drawn (The Emperor Akbar, by Count Von Noer; translated by Annette S. Beveridge, Calcutta, 1890, vol. i, p. 267).
13. Diodorus Siculus has the same observation. ’No enemy ever does any prejudice to the husbandmen; but, out of a due regard to the common good, forbear to injure them in the least degree; and, therefore, the land being never spoiled or wasted, yields its fruit in great abundance, and furnishes the inhabitants with plenty of victual and all other provisions.’ Book II, chap. 3. [W. H. S.] These allegations certainly cannot be accepted as accurate statements of fact, however they may be explained. See E.H.I., 3rd ed. (1914), p. 442.
14. The rapid recovery of Indian villages and villagers from the effects of war does not need for its explanation the evocation of ’a spirit of moral and political vitality’. The real explanation is to be found in the simplicity of the village life and needs, as expounded by the author in the preceding passage. Human societies with a low standard of comfort and a simple scheme of life are, like individual organisms of lowly structure and few functions, hard to kill. Human labour, and a few cattle, with a little grain and some sticks, are the only essential requisites for the foundation or reconstruction of a village.
15. Golconda was taken by Aurangzeb, after a protracted siege, in 1677. Bijapur surrendered to him on the 15th October, 1686. The vast ruins of this splendid city, which was deserted after the conquest, occupy a space thirty miles in circumference. The town has partially recovered, and is now the head-quarters of a Bombay District, with about 24,000 inhabitants. Sivaji, the founder of the Maratha power, died in 1680.
16. The Indore and Baroda States still survive, and the reigning chiefs of both have frequently visited England, and paid their respects to their Sovereign. Bhonsla was the family name of the chiefs of Berar, also known as the Rajas of Nagpur. The last Raja, Raghoji III, died in December 1853, leaving no child begotten or adopted. Lord Dalhousie annexed the State as lapsed, and his action was confirmed in 1864 by the Court of Directors and the Crown.