7. This statement is no longer quite accurate, though fortified positions are still very few.
8. The editor cannot find the exact passage quoted, but remarks to the same effect will be found in The Life of Sir Thomas Munro, by the Rev. G. R. Gleig, in two volumes, a new edition (London, 1831), vol. ii, p. 175.
9. Narrative of a Journey through the Upper Provinces of India, from Calcutta to Bombay, 1834-5, and a Journey to the Southern Provinces in 1826 (2nd edition, 3 vols. 8vo, London, 1828.)
10. The bees at the Marble Rocks are the Apis dorsata. An Englishman named Biddington, when trying to escape from them, was drowned, and they stung to death one of Captain Forsyth’s baggage ponies (Balfour, Cyclopaedia of India, 3rd ed., 1885, s.v. Bee’).
11. The vast epic poem, or collection of poems known as the Mahabharata, consists of over 100,000 Sanskrit verses. The main subject is the war between the five Pandavas, or sons of Pandu, and their cousins the Kauravas, sons of Dhritarashtra. Many poems of various origins and dates are interwoven with the main work. The best known of the episodes is that of Nala and Damayanti, which was well translated by Dean Milman, See Macdonell, A History of Sanskrit Literature (Heinemann, 1900).
12. The five Pandava brothers were Yudhishthira, Bhimia, Arjuna, Nakula, and Sahadeva, the children of Pandu, by his wives Kunti, or Pritha, and Madri.
13. ’The Narbada has its special admirers, who exalt it oven above the Ganges, . . . The sanctity of the Ganges will, they say, cease in 1895, whereas that of the Narbada will continue for ever’ (Monier Williams, Religious Thought and Life in India, London, 1883, p. 348), See post, Chapter 27.
14. Sleeman wrote ‘Py-Khan’, a corrupt spelling of pakhan, the Sanskrit pashana or pasana, ‘a stone’. The compound pashana-murti is commonly used in the sense of ‘stone image’. The sibilant sh or s usually is pronounced as kh in Northern India (Grierson, J.R.A.S., 1903, p. 363).
15. Sarasvati, consort of Brahma; Devi (Parvati, Durga, &c.), consort of Siva; and Lakshmi, consort of Vishnu. All Hindoo deities have many names.
16. The author’s explanation is partly erroneous. The temple, which is a very remarkable one, is dedicated to the sixty-four Joginis. Only five temples in India are known to be dedicated to these demons. For details see Cunningham, A.S.R., vol. ix, pp. 61-74, pl. xii-xvi; vol. ii, p. 416; and vol. xxi, p. 57. The word vahana means ‘vehicle’. Each deity has his peculiar vehicle.
17. The heaven of Siva, as distinguished from Vaikuntha, the heaven of Vishnu. It is supposed to be somewhere in the Himalaya mountains. The wonderful excavated rock temple at Ellora is believed to be a model of Kailas.
18. This ‘notion’ of the author’s is not likely to find acceptance at the present day.