Coal is not found below the very ancient sandstone rocks, classed by geologists under the name of the Vindhyan Series. The principal beds of coal are found in the great series of rocks, known collectively as the Gondwana System, which is supposed to range in age from the Permian to the Upper Jurassic periods of European geologists (Manual, vol. i, p. 102). This Gondwana System includes sandstones. A coalfield at Mohpani, ninety-five miles west-south-west from Jabalpur by rail, was worked from 1862 to 1904 by the Nerbudda Coal and Iron Company; and is now worked by the G. I. P. Railway Company. The principal coal-field of the Central Provinces for some years was that near Warora in the Chanda district, but the amount which can be extracted profitably is approaching exhaustion; in fact the colliery was closed in 1906. Thick seams are known to exist to the south of Chanda near the Wardha river. See I. G., 1907, vol. iii, chap. iii, p. 135; vol. x. p. 51.
9. See note to Chapter 25, ante, note 7.
10. ‘Pickpockets’ is not a suitable term.
11. The Persian word ‘doab’ means the tract of land between two rivers, which ultimately meet. The upper doab referred to in the text lies between the Ganges and the Jumna.
12. These ‘colonies of thieves and robbers’ are still the despair of the Indian administrator. They are known to Anglo-Indian law as ‘criminal tribes’, and a special Act has been passed for their regulation. The principle of that Act is police supervision, exercised by means of visits of inspection, and the issue of passports. The Act has been applied from time to time to various tribes, but has in every case failed. In 1891, Sir Auckland Colvin, then Lieutenant-Governor of the North-Western Provinces, adopted the strong measure of suddenly capturing many hundreds of Sansias, a troublesome criminal tribe, in the Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, and Aligarh Districts. Some of the prisoners were sent to a special jail, or reformatory, called a ‘settlement’, at Sultanpur in Oudh, and the others were drafted off to various landlords’ estates. These latter were supposed to devote themselves to agriculture. The editor, as Magistrate of Muzaffarnagar, effected the capture of more than seven hundred Sansias in that district, and dispatched them in accordance with orders. As most people expected, the agricultural pupils promptly absconded. Multitudes of Sansias in the Panjab and elsewhere remained unaffected by the raid, which could not have any permanent effect. The milder expedient of settling and nursing a large colony, organized in villages, of another criminal tribe, the Bawarias (Boureahs), was also tried many years ago in the same district of Muzaffarnagar. The people settled readily enough, and reclaimed a considerable area of waste land, but were not in the least degree reformed. At the beginning of the cold season, in October or November, most of the able-bodied