38. Samthar is a small state, lying between the Betwa and Pahuj rivers, to the south-west of the Jalaun district. It was separated from the Datiya State only one generation previous to the British occupation of Bundelkhand. A treaty was concluded with the Raja in 1812 (N.W.P. Gazetteer (1st ed.), vol. i, p. 578).
39. Gujars occupy more than a hundred villages in the Jalaun district, chiefly among the ravines of the Pahuj river. The Gujar caste is most numerous in the Panjab and the upper districts of the United Provinces. It is not very highly esteemed, being of about equal rank with the Ahir caste and rather below the Jat. Gujar colonies are settled in the Hoshangabad and Nimar districts of the Central Provinces. The Gujars are inveterate cattle-lifters, and always ready to take advantage of any relaxation of the bonds of order to prey upon their neighbours. Many sections of the caste have adopted the Muhammadan faith.
40. The small state of Chhatarpur lies to the south of the Hamirpur district, between the Dasan and Ken rivers. The town of Chhatarpur, on the military road from Banda to Sagar, is remarkable for the mausoleum and ruined palace of Raja Chhatarsal, after whom the town is named. Khajuraho, the ancient religious capital of the Chandel monarchy, with its magnificent group of mediaeval Hindoo and Jain temples, is within the limits of the state, about eighteen miles south-east of Chhatarpur, and thirty-four miles south of Mahoba. The Pawar adventurer, who succeeded in separating Chhatarpur from the Panna state, was originally a common soldier.