The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa, Volume 4 eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 1,582 pages of information about The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa, Volume 4.

“Yudhishthira said, ’Which amongst these three persons, O grandsire, should be regarded as the best for making gifts unto, viz., one who is a thorough stranger, or one who is living with and who has been known to the giver for a long time, or one who presents himself before the giver, coming from a long distance?’

“Bhishma said, ’All these are equal.  The eligibility of some consists in their soliciting alms for performing sacrifices or for paying the preceptor’s fee or for maintaining their spouses and children.  The eligibility of some for receiving gifts, consists in their following the vow of wandering over the earth, never soliciting anything but receiving when given.  We should also give unto one what one seeks.[268] We should, however, make gifts without afflicting those that depend upon us.  Even this is what we have heard.  By afflicting one’s dependants, one afflicts one’s own self.  The stranger,—­one, that is, who has come for the first time,—­should be regarded as a proper object of gifts.  He who is familiar and well-known and has been living with the giver, should be regarded in the same light.  The learned know that he too who comes from a distant place should be regarded in an equal light.’

“Yudhishthira said, ’It is true that we should make gifts unto others without afflicting anyone and without doing violence to the ordinances of the scriptures.  One should, however, correctly ascertain who the person is that should be regarded as a proper object for making gifts.  He should be such that the gift itself, by being made over to him, may not grieve.’[269]

“Bhishma said, ’If the Ritwik, the Purohita, the preceptor, the Acharya, the disciple, the relative (by marriage), and kinsmen, happen to be possessed of learning and free from malice, then should they be deemed worthy of respect and worship.  Those persons that do not possess such qualifications cannot be regarded as worthy of gifts or hospitality.  Hence, one should with deliberation examine persons with whom one comes into contact.  Absence of wrath, truthfulness of speech, abstention from injury, sincerity, peacefulness of conduct, the absence of pride, modesty, renunciation, self-restraint, and tranquillity or contentment of soul, he in whom these occur by nature, and in whom there are no wicked acts, should be regarded as a proper object.  Such a person deserves honours.  Whether the person he one who is well-known and familiar, or one who has come newly, whether he has not been seen before, if he happens to possess these qualifications, he should be regarded as worthy of honours and hospitality.  He who denies the authority of the Vedas, or strives to show that the scriptures should be disregarded, or approves of all breaches or restraint in society,—­simply brings about his own ruin (and should not be regarded as worthy of gifts).  That Brahmana who is vain of his learning, who speaks ill of the Vedas or who is devoted to the science of useless disputation,

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The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa, Volume 4 from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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