Upon these then does the aggregate of three depend.
Entire abstraction from all objects is Emancipation.
It is said that Virtue is sought for the protection
of the body, and Wealth is for the acquisition of Virtue.
Pleasure is only the gratification of the senses.
All the three have, therefore, the quality of Passion.
Virtue, Wealth, and Pleasure, when sought for the
sake of heaven or such other rewards, are said to be
remote because the rewards themselves are remote.
When sought, however, for the sake of Knowledge of
Self, they are said to be proximate. One should
seek them when they are of such a character. One
should not cast them off even mentally. If Virtue,
Wealth, and Pleasure are to be abandoned, one should
abandon them when one has freed one’s self by
ascetic penances. The aim of the triple aggregate
is towards emancipation. Would that man could
obtain it! One’s acts, undertaken and completed
with eve tithe aid of intelligence may or may not lead
to the expected results. Virtue is not always
the root of Wealth, for other things than Virtue lead
to Wealth (such as service, agriculture, &c).
There is again a contrary opinion (for some say that
Wealth is earned through chance or birth or like causes).
In some instances, Wealth acquired has been productive
of evil. Other things again that Wealth (such
as fasts and vows) have led to the acquisition of Virtue.
As regards this topic, therefore, a dullard whose
understanding has been debased by ignorance, never
succeeds in acquiring the highest aim of Virtue and
., Emancipation. Virtue’s
dross consists in the desire of reward; the dross
of Wealth consists in hoarding it; when purged of
these impurities, they are productive of great results.
In this connection is cited the narrative of the discourse
that look place in days of old between Kamandaka and
Angaristha. One day, king Angaristha, having
waited for the opportunity, saluted the Rishi Kamandaka
as he was seated at his ease and asked him the following
questions, ’If a king, forced by lust and folly,
commits sin for which he afterwards repents, by what
acts, O Rishi, can those sins be destroyed? If
again a man impelled by ignorance, does what is sinful
in the belief that he is acting righteously, how shall
the king put a stop to that sin come into vogue among
“Kamandaka said, ’That man who, abandoning
Virtue and Wealth pursues only Pleasure, reaps as
the consequence of such conduct the destruction of
his intelligence. The destruction of intelligence
is followed by heedlessness that is at once destructive
of both Virtue and Wealth. From such heedlessness
proceed dire atheism and systematic wickedness of conduct.
If the king does not restrain those wicked men of sinful
conduct, all good subjects then live in fear of him
like the inmate of a room within which a snake has
concealed itself. The subjects do not follow such
a king. Brahmanas and all pious persons also
act in the same way. As a consequence the king