their duties, seek the same single end (viz., the highest
happiness). Thou art possessed of unquestioned
talents and abilities. For ascertaining that
particular course of conduct (amongst those various
duties) which is well calculated to accomplish the
desired end, thou hast, by discoursing to me on the
Infinite (Brahma), filled my soul with tranquillity.
As regards ourselves, in consequence of our inability
to understand the Soul we are destitute of a correct
apprehension of the reality. Our wisdom is concerned
with things that are low, and we are enveloped in
thick darkness. (The course of conduct, however, that
thou hast indicated for enabling one to attain to
Emancipation, is exceedingly difficult of practice).
Only he who is devoted to Yoga, who has discharged
all his duties, who is capable of roving everywhere
depending only on his own body, who has brought his
soul under perfect control, who has transcended the
requirements of the science of morality and who disregards
the whole world (and everything belonging to it), can
transgress the declarations of the Vedas with respect
to acts, and say that there is Emancipation.
For one, however, who lives in the midst of relatives,
this course of conduct is exceedingly difficult to
follow. Gift, study of the Vedas, sacrifices,
begetting offspring, simplicity of dealing, when by
practising even these no one succeeds in attaining
to Emancipation, fie on him who seeks to attain to
it, and on Emancipation itself that is sought!
It seems that the labour spent upon attaining to it
is all fruitless. One becomes chargeable with
atheism if one disregards the Vedas by not doing the
acts they direct. O illustrious one, I desire
to hear without delay about that (Emancipation) which
comes in the Vedas after the declarations in favour
of acts. Do tell me the truth, O Brahmana!
I sit at thy feet as a disciple. Teach me kindly!
I wish to know as much about Emancipation as is known
to thee, O learned one!’
“Kapila said, ’The Vedas are regarded
as authoritative by all. People never disregard
them. Brahma is of two kinds, viz., Brahma
as represented by sound, and Brahma as Supreme (and
intangible). One conversant with Brahma represented
by sound succeeds in attaining to Supreme Brahma.
Commencing with the rites of Garbhadhana, that body
which the sire creates with the aid of Vedic mantras
is cleansed (after birth) by Vedic mantras.
When the body has been cleansed with purificatory rites
(performed with the aid of Vedic mantras), the owner
there of come to be called a Brahmana and becomes
a vessel fit for receiving knowledge of Brahma.
Know that the reward of acts is purity of heart which
only leads to Emancipation. I shall presently
speak to thee of that. Whether purity of heart
has been attained or not (by performance of acts) is
what can be known to the person himself who has attained
it. It can never be known with the aid of either