does not exist, or may not be found, to avoid those
contests which were so fatal to our prosperity in former
days. Lastly I regard as one of the most hopeful
signs of the future the increased estimate of the
value of science entertained by our practical men.
In this respect we may claim with pride that the Iron
and Steel Institute has been the pioneer, at any rate,
so far as this country is concerned. But the
conviction that the elements of science should be
placed within the reach of those who occupy a humbler
position in the industrial hierarchy than we do who
are assembled here is rapidly spreading among us.
The iron manufacturers of Westphalia have been the
first to found an institution in which the intelligent
and ambitious ironworker can qualify himself by study
for a higher position, and I hope when this Institute
visits Middlesbrough in the autumn, some progress
will have been made in that locality toward the establishment
of a similar school. Other districts will doubtless
follow, and the result will be, to quote the words
of Sir W. Siemens on a late occasion, that “by
the dissemination of science a higher spirit will
take possession of our artisans; that they will work
with the object of obtaining higher results, instead
of only discussing questions of wages.”
It is on the mutual co-operation in this spirit of
all the workers of every grade in our great craft
that we may build the hope—nay, that we
may even cherish the certain expectation—of
placing it on even a higher eminence than that which
it has already attained.
* * * *
THE “SWALLOW,” A NEW VEHICLE.
The graceful vehicle shown in the accompanying cut
is much used in Poland and Russia, and we believe
that it has already made its appearance at Paris.
The builder is Mr. Henri Barycki, of Warsaw, who has
very skillfully utilized a few very curious mechanical
principles in it.
[Illustration: THE SWALLOW.]
The driver’s seat is fixed in the interior of
a wide ring to which are fastened the shafts.
This ring revolves, by the aid of three pulleys or
small wheels, within the large ring resting on the
ground. It will be seen that when the horse is
drawing the vehicle, the friction of this large wheel
against the ground being greater than that of the
concentric one within it, the latter will revolve until
the center of gravity of the whole is situated anew
in a line vertical to the point at which it bears
on the ground. The result of such an arrangement
is that the driver rolls on the large wheel just as
he would do on the surface of an endless rail.
As may be conceived, the tractive stress is, as a
consequence, considerably diminished.
There are two side wheels which are connected by a
flexible axle to the seat of the carriage, but these
have no other purpose than that of preventing the
affair from turning to one side or the other.