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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 168 pages of information about The Negro.

[45] Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, XLIII, 414, 415.  Cf. also The Crisis, Vol.  IX, p. 234.

[46] Buecher:  Industrial Revolution (tr. by Wickett), pp. 57-58.

[47] Hayford:  Native Institutions, pp. 95-96.

[48] Ratzel, II, 376.

[49] Hayford:  Native Institutions, pp. 76 ff.

[50] Impressions of South Africa, 3d ed., p. 352.

[51] William Schneider.

[52] West African Studies, Chap.  V.

[53] Op. cit.

[54] Impressions of South Africa.

[55] Frobenius:  Voice of Africa, Vol.  I.

[56] West African Studies, p. 107.

[57] Nassau:  Fetishism in West Africa, p. 36.

[58] Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th ed., XX, 362.

[59] The African Provinces, II, 345.

[60] Mediterranean Race, p. 10.

[61] Stowe:  Native Races, etc., pp. 553-554.

[62] Quoted in Schneider.

[63] Frobenius:  Voice of Africa, Vol.  I, Chap.  XIV.

[64] Frobenius:  Voice of Africa, Vol.  I.

[65] Frobenius:  Voice of Africa, I, 14-15.

[66] Frobenius:  Voice of Africa, I, 272.

[67] Ratzel:  History of Mankind, II, 313.

[68] Atlanta University Publications, No. 11.

[69] Robert Lowie in the New Review, Sept., 1914.

IX THE TRADE IN MEN

Color was never a badge of slavery in the ancient or medieval world, nor has it been in the modern world outside of Christian states.  Homer sings of a black man, a “reverend herald”

    Of visage solemn, sad, but sable hue,
    Short, woolly curls, o’erfleeced his bending head,... 
    Eurybiates, in whose large soul alone,
    Ulysses viewed an image of his own.

Greece and Rome had their chief supplies of slaves from Europe and Asia.  Egypt enslaved races of all colors, and if there were more blacks than others among her slaves, there were also more blacks among her nobles and Pharaohs, and both facts are explained by her racial origin and geographical position.  The fall of Rome led to a cessation of the slave trade, but after a long interval came the white slave trade of the Saracens and Moors, and finally the modern trade in Negroes.

Slavery as it exists universally among primitive people is a system whereby captives in war are put to tasks about the homes and in the fields, thus releasing the warriors for systematic fighting and the women for leisure.  Such slavery has been common among all peoples and was wide-spread in Africa.  The relative number of African slaves under these conditions was small and the labor not hard; they were members of the family and might and did often rise to high position in the tribe.

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