Sec.11. It is sometimes agreed to suspend hostilities for a time. If the agreement is only for a short period, for the purpose of burying the dead after battle, or for a parley between the hostile generals; or if it regards only some particular place, it is called a cessation or suspension of arms; if for a considerable time, and especially if general, it is called a truce. By a partial truce, hostilities are suspended in certain places, as between a town and the general besieging it; and generals have power to make such truces. By a general truce, hostilities are to cease generally, and in all places, and are made by the governments or sovereigns. Such truces afford opportunities for nations to settle their disputes by negotiation.
Sec.12. A truce binds the contracting parties from the time it is made; but individuals of the nation are not responsible for its violation before they have had due notice of it. And for all prizes taken after the time of its commencement, the government is bound to make restitution. During the cessation of hostilities, each party may, within his own territories, continue his preparations for war, without being charged with a breach of good faith.
Sec.13. War is generally terminated, and peace secured, by treaties of peace. The manner of making treaties has been described. (Chap. XL, Sec.5.) A treaty of peace puts an end to the war, and leaves the contracting parties no right to take up arms for the same cause.
Sec.14. The parties to a treaty of peace are bound by it from the time of its conclusion, which is the day on which it is signed; but, as in the case of a truce, persons are not held responsible for any hostile acts committed before the treaty was known; and their government is bound to order and enforce the restitution of property captured subsequently to the conclusion of the treaty.
Sec.15. War is sometimes terminated by mediation. A friend to both parties, desirous of stopping the destruction of human life, kindly endeavors to reconcile the parties. The friendly sovereign who thus interposes, is called mediator. Many desolating wars might have been early arrested in this way, or wholly prevented, had there always been among friendly powers a disposition to reconcile contending nations.
Synopsis of the State Constitutions.
The District of Maine, formerly belonging to the state of Massachusetts, adopted in convention, October 29, 1819, the present constitution, and was admitted into the Union as a state, March 15, 1820. The constitution has received several alterations.
Electors. All male citizens, having had a residence in the state three months, except paupers, persons under guardianship, and Indians not taxed.