Christianity and Islam in Spain (756-1031) eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 176 pages of information about Christianity and Islam in Spain (756-1031).

CHAPTER V.

Doubtful martyrs—­No persecution raging—­The Muzarabes—­Churches in Cordova—­Arab description of a church—­Monasteries outside the city—­Voluntary martyrs, chiefly from Cordova—­No ferment at Elvira—­Enthusiasts not a large body—­Their leaders—­The moderate party—­Objections against the martyrs—­Voluntary martyrdoms forbidden by the Church—­Answer of apologists—­Evidence as to persecution—­Apologists inconsistent—­Eulogius and Alvar—­Reviling of Mohammed—­Martyrs worked no miracles—­Defence of apologists illogical—­Martyrs put to death not by idolaters—­Death without torture—­Their bodies corrupted—­Moslem taunts—­Effect of martyrdoms on the Moslems—­Prohibition of relics—­Traffic in relics—­They work miracles—­Relics taken from Spain to France—­Expedition of monks for that purpose—­St Vincent’s body—­Relics of George, Aurelius, etc., carried off—­Return to France—­Measures of the moderate party—­Of the Moslems—­Reccafredus—­supported by the majority of Christians—­Fanatics coerced—­Anathematized—­Action of king—­Suspects political movement—­Revolt at Toledo—­Grand Council—­Measures against zealots—­Meditated persecution—­The extreme party broken up—­Apostasies—­Reason of these—­The exceptor Gomez—­The decision of the Council—­Cessation of martyrdoms 54-73

CHAPTER VI.

National party—­Revolt of Spaniards against Arabs—­Martyrs in battle—­Martyrdoms under Abdurrahman iii.—­Pelagius—­Argentea—­The monks of Cardena—­Eugenia—­No real persecution under the Great Khalif—­General view of Christian Church in Spain under Abdurrahman ii.—­Civil position of Christians—­Councils—­Neglect of Latin—­Arabic compulsory—­Protests of Alvar, etc.—­Latin forgotten—­Cultivation of Moslem learning—­Moslem theology—­Church abuses—­Simony—­Breach of canons—­Unworthy priests—­Rival pastors—­Heresy in the Church—­Depravity of clergy—­Their apostasy—­Their deposition—­Muzarabes—­Free Christians in the North—­The Church in the North—­Its dangerous position—­Cut short by Almanzor—­Clergy oppress Christians—­Count of Cordova—­Ill-treats the Christians—­Councils—­Held by Elipandus—­By Reccafredus—­By Hostegesis—­Jews and Moslems summoned—­Council held by Basilius 73-86

CHAPTER VII.

Khalifate saved by Abdurrahman iii.—­Commander of the Faithful—­His character—­Embassy to the Emperor of the West—­Return embassy—­John of Gorz—­Detained in Cordova—­Messengers from the king—­Cause of detention—­John of Gorz and John of Cordova—­The king’s threats—­Dead-lock—­Fresh embassy to Otho—­A second embassy from Otho—­First embassy received—­Condescension of Sultan—­Tolerance of Moslems—­Mohammed’s injunctions—­Tolerant Mohammedan rulers elsewhere—­Alcuin—­Arnold of Citeaux—­Bernard, Archbishop of Toledo—­Christians tolerated, even encouraged—­“Officer of protection”—­Christian courts—­Censors—­Sclavonian bodyguard—­Arab pride of race—­Partial Amalgamation of races—­Alliances between Arabs and Christians—­Intermarriages—­Offspring of these—­The maiden tribute—­Evidence in its favour—­No myth—­Conversions—­Mohammedan view of apostasy 86-98

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Christianity and Islam in Spain (756-1031) from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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