The elements which enter into the earlier kinetic theory, and which, to avoid confusion, should be always designated by the name of molecules, were not, truth to say, in the eyes of the chemists, the final term of the divisibility of matter. It is well known that, to them, except in certain particular bodies like the vapour of mercury and argon, the molecule comprises several atoms, and that, in compound bodies, the number of these atoms may even be fairly considerable. But physicists rarely needed to have recourse to the consideration of these atoms. They spoke of them to explain certain particularities of the propagation of sound, and to enunciate laws relating to specific heats; but, in general, they stopped at the consideration of the molecule.
The present theories carry the division much further. I shall not dwell now on these theories, since, in order to thoroughly understand them, many other facts must be examined. But to avoid all confusion, it remains understood that, contrary, no doubt, to etymology, but in conformity with present custom, I shall continue in what follows to call atoms those particles of matter which have till now been spoken of; these atoms being themselves, according to modern views, singularly complex edifices formed of elements, of which we shall have occasion to indicate the nature later.
THE VARIOUS STATES OF MATTER
Sec. 1. THE STATICS OF FLUIDS
The division of bodies into gaseous, liquid, and solid, and the distinction established for the same substance between the three states, retain a great importance for the applications and usages of daily life, but have long since lost their absolute value from the scientific point of view.
So far as concerns the liquid and gaseous states particularly, the already antiquated researches of Andrews confirmed the ideas of Cagniard de la Tour and established the continuity of the two states. A group of physical studies has thus been constituted on what may be called the statics of fluids, in which we examine the relations existing between the pressure, the volume, and the temperature of bodies, and in which are comprised, under the term fluid, gases as well as liquids.
These researches deserve attention by their interest and the generality of the results to which they have led. They also give a remarkable example of the happy effects which may be obtained by the combined employment of the various methods of investigation used in exploring the domain of nature. Thermodynamics has, in fact, allowed us to obtain numerical relations between the various coefficients, and atomic hypotheses have led to the establishment of one capital relation, the characteristic equation of fluids; while, on the other hand, experiment in which the progress made in the art of measurement has been utilized, has furnished the most valuable information on all the laws of compressibility and dilatation.