The New Physics and Its Evolution eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 226 pages of information about The New Physics and Its Evolution.

Sec. 8.  Wireless telegraphy enters the commercial stage—­
Defect of Marconi’s system—­Braun’s, Armstrong’s, Lee de
Forest’s, and Fessenden’s systems make use of earth—­
Hertz and Marconi entitled to foremost place among
discoverers.

CHAPTER VIII

THE CONDUCTIVITY OF GASES AND THE IONS

Sec. 1.  The Conductivity of Gases:  Relations of matter to ether cardinal problem—­Conductivity of gases at first misapprehended—­Erman’s forgotten researches—­Giese first notices phenomenon—­Experiment with X-rays—­ J.J.  Thomson’s interpretation—­Ionized gas not obedient to Ohm’s law—­Discharge of charged conductors by ionized gas.

Sec. 2.  The Condensation of water-vapour by Ions:  Vapour will not condense without nucleus—­Wilson’s experiments on electrical condensation—­Wilson and Thomson’s counting experiment—­Twenty million ions per c.cm. of gas—­Estimate of charge borne by ion—­ Speed of charges—­Zeleny’s and Langevin’s experiments—­Negative ions 1/1000 of size of atoms—­Natural unit of electricity or electrons.

Sec. 3.  How Ions are Produced:  Various causes of ionization—­Moreau’s experiments with alkaline salts—­Barus and Bloch on ionization by phosphorus vapours—­Ionization always result of shock.

Sec. 4.  Electrons in Metals:  Movement of electrons in metals foreshadowed by Weber—­Giese’s, Riecke’s, Drude’s, and J.J.  Thomson’s researches—­Path of ions in metals and conduction of heat—­Theory of Lorentz—­Hesehus’ explanation of electrification by contact—­Emission of electrons by charged body—­ Thomson’s measurement of positive ions.

CHAPTER IX

CATHODE RAYS AND RADIOACTIVE BODIES

Sec. 1.  The Cathode Rays:  History of discovery—­Crookes’ theory—­Lenard rays—­Perrin’s proof of negative charge—­Cathode rays give rise to X-rays—­The canal rays—­Villard’s researches and magneto-cathode rays—­ Ionoplasty—­Thomson’s measurements of speed of rays—­ All atoms can be dissociated.

Sec. 2.  Radioactive Substances:  Uranic rays of Niepce de St Victor and Becquerel—­General radioactivity of matter—­Le Bon’s and Rutherford’s comparison of uranic with X rays—­Pierre and Mme. Curie’s discovery of polonium and radium—­Their characteristics—­Debierne discovers actinium.

Sec. 3.  Radiations and Emanations of Radioactive Bodies:  Giesel’s, Becquerel’s, and Rutherford’s Researches—­Alpha, beta, and gamma rays—­Sagnac’s secondary rays—­Crookes’ spinthariscope—­The emanation —­Ramsay and Soddy’s researches upon it—­Transformations of radioactive bodies—­Their order.

Sec. 4.  Disaggregation of Matter and Atomic Energy:  Actual transformations of matter in radioactive bodies —­Helium or lead final product—­Ultimate disappearance of radium from earth—­Energy liberated by radium:  its amount and source—­Suggested models of radioactive atoms—­Generalization from radioactive phenomena -Le Bon’s theories—­Ballistic hypothesis generally admitted—­Does energy come from without—­Sagnac’s experiments—­Elster and Geitel’s contra.

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The New Physics and Its Evolution from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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