Sec. 5. Atomism: Connection of subject with preceding Hannequin’s essay on the atomic hypothesis—Molecular physics in disfavour—Surface-tension, etc., vanishes when molecule reached—Size of molecule—Kinetic theory of gases—Willard Gibbs and Boltzmann introduce into it law of probabilities—Mean free path of gaseous molecules—Application to optics—Final division of matter.
THE VARIOUS STATES OF MATTER
Sec. 1. The Statics of Fluids: Researches of Andrews, Cailletet, and others on liquid and gaseous states— Amagat’s experiments—Van der Waals’ equation—Discovery of corresponding states—Amagat’s superposed diagrams—Exceptions to law—Statics of mixed fluids— Kamerlingh Onnes’ researches—Critical Constants— Characteristic equation of fluid not yet ascertainable.
Sec. 2. The Liquefaction of Gases and Low Temperatures: Linde’s, Siemens’, and Claude’s methods of liquefying gases—Apparatus of Claude described—Dewar’s experiments—Modification of electrical properties of matter by extreme cold: of magnetic and chemical— Vitality of bacteria unaltered—Ramsay’s discovery of rare gases of atmosphere—Their distribution in nature—Liquid hydrogen—Helium.
Sec. 3. Solids and Liquids: Continuity of
Solid and Liquid
States—Viscosity common to both—Also Rigidity—
Spring’s analogies of solids and liquids—Crystallization
—Lehmann’s liquid crystals—Their existence doubted
—Tamman’s view of discontinuity between crystalline
and liquid states.
Sec. 4. The Deformation of Solids: Elasticity— Hoocke’s, Bach’s, and Bouasse’s researches—Voigt on the elasticity of crystals—Elastic and permanent deformations—Brillouin’s states of unstable equilibria—Duhem and the thermodynamic postulates— Experimental confirmation—Guillaume’s researches on nickel steel—Alloys.
SOLUTIONS AND ELECTROLYTIC DISSOCIATION
Sec. 1. Solution: Kirchhoff’s, Gibb’s, Duhem’s and Van t’Hoff’s researches.
Sec. 2. Osmosis: History of phenomenon—Traube and biologists establish existence of semi-permeable walls—Villard’s experiments with gases—Pfeffer shows osmotic pressure proportional to concentration— Disagreement as to cause of phenomenon.
Sec. 3. Osmosis applied to Solution: Van t’Hoff’s discoveries—Analogy between dissolved body and perfect gas—Faults in analogy.
Sec. 4. Electrolytic Dissociation: Van t’Hoff’s and Arrhenius’ researches—Ionic hypothesis of—Fierce opposition to at first—Arrhenius’ ideas now triumphant —Advantages of Arrhenius’ hypothesis—“The ions which react”—Ostwald’s conclusions from this—Nernst’s theory of Electrolysis—Electrolysis of gases makes electronic theory probable—Faraday’s two laws—Valency— Helmholtz’s consequences from Faraday’s laws.