The New Physics and Its Evolution eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 226 pages of information about The New Physics and Its Evolution.

MEASUREMENTS

Sec. 1.  Metrology:  Lord Kelvin’s view of its necessity—­ Its definition

Sec. 2.  The Measure of Length:  Necessity for unit—­
Absolute length—­History of Standard—­Description of
Standard Metre—­Unit of wave-lengths preferable—­The
International Metre

Sec. 3.  The Measure of Mass:  Distinction between mass and weight—­Objections to legal kilogramme and its precision—­Possible improvement

Sec. 4.  The Measure of Time:  Unit of time the second—­Alternative units proposed—­Improvements in chronometry and invar

Sec. 5.  The Measure of Temperature:  Fundamental and derived units—­Ordinary unit of temperature purely arbitrary—­Absolute unit mass of H at pressure of 1 m. of Hg at 0 deg.  C.—­Divergence of thermometric and thermodynamic scales—­Helium thermometer for low, thermo-electric couple for high, temperatures—­Lummer and Pringsheim’s improvements in thermometry.

Sec. 6.  Derived Units and Measure of Energy:  Importance of erg as unit—­Calorimeter usual means of determination—­Photometric units.

Sec. 7.  Measure of Physical Constants:  Constant of gravitation—­Discoveries of Cavendish, Vernon Boys, Eoetvoes, Richarz and Krigar-Menzel—­Michelson’s improvements on Fizeau and Foucault’s experiments—­ Measure of speed of light.

CHAPTER III

PRINCIPLES

Sec. 1.  The Principles of Physics:  The Principles of Mechanics affected by recent discoveries—­Is mass indestructible?—­Landolt and Heydweiller’s experiments —­Lavoisier’s law only approximately true—­Curie’s principle of symmetry.

Sec. 2.  The Principle of the Conservation of Energy:  Its evolution:  Bernoulli, Lavoisier and Laplace, Young, Rumford, Davy, Sadi Carnot, and Robert Mayer—­Mayer’s drawbacks—­Error of those who would make mechanics part of energetics—­Verdet’s predictions—­Rankine inventor of energetics—­Usefulness of Work as standard form of energy—­Physicists who think matter form of energy—­ Objections to this—­Philosophical value of conservation doctrine.

Sec. 3.  The Principle of Carnot and Clausius:  Originality of Carnot’s principle that fall of temperature necessary for production of work by heat—­ Clausius’ postulate that heat cannot pass from cold to hot body without accessory phenomena—­Entropy result of this—­Definition of entropy—­Entropy tends to increase incessantly—­A magnitude which measures evolution of system—­Clausius’ and Kelvin’s deduction that heat end of all energy in Universe—­Objection to this—­ Carnot’s principle not necessarily referable to mechanics —­Brownian movements—­Lippmann’s objection to kinetic hypothesis.

Sec. 4.  Thermodynamics:  Historical work of Massieu, Willard Gibbs, Helmholtz, and Duhem—­Willard Gibbs founder of thermodynamic statics, Van t’Hoff its reviver—­The Phase Law—­Raveau explains it without thermodynamics.

Copyrights
Project Gutenberg
The New Physics and Its Evolution from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
Follow Us on Facebook