Scientific American Supplement, No. 832, December 12, 1891 eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 132 pages of information about Scientific American Supplement, No. 832, December 12, 1891.
is formed, which, however, in a very short time becomes warm and the fluoride decomposes; platinic hydrate is precipitated, and free hydrofluoric acid remains in solution.  If the quantity of water is greater, the solution may be preserved for some minutes without decomposition.  If the liquid is boiled, it decomposes instantly.  At a red heat platinic fluoride decomposes into metallic platinum and fluorine, which is evolved in the free state.  This reaction can therefore be employed as a ready means of preparing fluorine, the fluoride only requiring to be heated rapidly to redness in a platinum tube closed at one end, when crystallized silicon held at the open end will be found to immediately take fire in the escaping fluorine.  The best mode of obtaining the fluoride of platinum for this purpose is to heat a bundle of platinum wires to low redness in the fluorspar reaction tube in a rapid stream of fluorine.  As soon as sufficient fluoride is formed on the wires, they are transferred to a well stoppered dry glass tube, until required for the preparation of fluorine.


Sulphureted Hydrogen.—­When the horizontal tube shown in Fig. 3 is filled with sulphureted hydrogen gas and fluorine is allowed to enter, a blue flame is observed on looking through the fluorspar windows playing around the spot where the fluorine is being admitted.  The decomposition continues until the whole of the hydrogen sulphide is converted into gaseous fluorides of hydrogen and sulphur.

Sulphur dioxide is likewise decomposed in the cold, with production of a yellow flame and formation of fluoride of sulphur.

Hydrochloric acid gas is also decomposed at ordinary temperatures with flame, and, if there is not a large excess of hydrochloric acid present, with detonation.  Hydrofluoric acid and free chlorine are the products.

Gaseous hydrobromic and hydriodic acids react with fluorine in a similar manner, with production of flame and formation of hydrofluoric acid.  Inasmuch, however, as bromine and iodine combine with fluorine, as previously described, these halogens do not escape, but burn up to their respective fluorides.  When fluorine is delivered into an aqueous solution of hydriodic acid, each bubble as it enters produces a flash of flame, and if the fluorine is being evolved fairly rapidly there is a series of very violent detonations.  A curious reaction also occurs when fluorine is similarly passed into a 50 per cent. aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid itself, a flame being produced in the middle of the liquid, accompanied by a series of detonations.

Nitric acid vapor reacts with great violence with fluorine, a loud explosion resulting.  If fluorine is passed into the ordinary liquid acid, each bubble as it enters produces a flame in the liquid.

Ammonia gas is decomposed by fluorine with formation of a yellow flame, forming hydrofluoric acid and liberating nitrogen.  With a solution of the gas in water, each bubble of fluorine produces an explosion and flame, as in case of hydriodic acid.

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Scientific American Supplement, No. 832, December 12, 1891 from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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