Life like a dome of many-coloured
Stains the white radiance of eternity
Until death shatters it to fragments.
A unity there is, but it is the unity of the countless and varied flowers that carpet the meadows in spring, the unity of the common spirit of life which animates them all.
Leach, The Schools of Medieval England. Methuen.
Mullinger, J. Bass, The Schools of Charles the Great.
Paulsen, Geschichte des gelehrten Unterrichts.
Rashdall, Universities in the Middle Ages. Clarendon Press.
Foster Watson, Grammar Schools. Cambridge University Press
Woodward, Erasmus. Cambridge University Press.
COMMERCE AND FINANCE AS INTERNATIONAL FORCES
Commerce and finance are departments of life in which mankind approaches nearer to unity than in any other. They are practical expressions of the instinct of self-preservation which is the first law of nature. They spring straight from the acquisitiveness which is a universal characteristic of human nature and indeed of animal and vegetable nature. Every living thing wants to acquire food. Adam Smith indeed restricts the trading instinct to mankind. ‘The propensity’, he says, ’to truck, barter, or exchange one thing for another ... is common to all men and to be found in no other race of animals, which seem to know neither this nor any other species of contracts. Two greyhounds in running down the same hare have sometimes the appearance of acting in some sort of concert. Each turns her towards his companion or endeavours to intercept her when his companion turns her towards himself. This, however, is not the effect of any contract, but of the accidental concurrence of their passions in the same object at that particular time. Nobody ever saw a dog make a fair and deliberate exchange of one bone for another with another dog.’