The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898 — Volume 12 of 55 eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 307 pages of information about The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898 — Volume 12 of 55.

[1] The viceroy of India from May, 1591 to May, 1597 was Matias de Albuquerque; he was succeeded by Francisco da Gama, Conde de Vidiguera, a grandson of the noted Vasco da Gama.  On December 25, 1600, Ayres de Saldanha became viceroy, holding that office a little more than four years.  “During the ‘captivity’ or subjection to Spain (1580-1640) India was governed entirely through the Casa da India at Lisbon, and altogether in the interests of Portugal and the Portuguese officials, who, as will be seen in vol. ii, jealously excluded Spanish interference.”—­Gray and Bell, note in Voyage of Francis Pyrard (Hakluyt Society’s publication no. 76, London, 1887), i, p. 439.

[2] Galagala:  the name of a coniferous tree (also known as piayo and damar; Agathis orantifolia), which produces a resin that is used for burning, for lighting, and for calking vessels.  See Blanco’s Flora, p. 528; and U.S.  Philippine Commission’s Report, 1900, iii, p. 282.

[3] Montero y Vidal recounts (Hist. de la pirateria, i, pp. 146-150) the piratical raids made about this time by the Joloans and Mindanaos.  When they saw that the fort at La Caldera was abandoned, they collected a force of three thousand men, in fifty caracoas, and (July, 1599) invaded the coasts of Cebu, Negros, and Panay, ravaging with fire and sword, and carrying away eight hundred captives.  In the following year these Moros came against the Spanish settlement of Arevalo (now Iloilo), in Panay, with eight thousand men; but they were repulsed by a handful of Spaniards, aided by a thousand Indian allies.  Gallinato led an expedition (February, 1602) against the Joloans, inflicting considerable loss on them, but was unable to reduce their forts; and he was compelled, by lack of supplies, to return to Manila.  In the summer of 1602 another Moro expedition sallied out from Mindanao and harried all the northern islands, even attacking Luzon; they carried away much booty and many captives.  A partial punishment was inflicted upon them by Spanish expeditions, but they were not subdued; and the Moro pirates were a constant source of terror and danger until recent times.

[4] Each paragraph is accompanied in the original MS. by a marginal note summarizing its contents; this is here omitted, as containing no additional information.

[5] This decree was issued at Lisbon, March 31, 1582, by Felipe II; a copy of it (addressed to Penalosa) appears in the MS. from which we have obtained this group of documents on the Maluco expedition.

A royal decree dated June 22, 1599, orders that all military expeditions in the islands thereafter must be sanctioned by the council of war, the cabildo of Manila, and the Audiencia.

[6] In 1526, the cabildo of the City of Mexico gave permission for the citizens “to have their tepuzque gold converted at the smelting works” into coin.  “For two years oro tepuzque was exclusively used, and the intrinsic value fluctuated so much that a standard was demanded.  In September, 1528 the cabildo adopted the resolution that all such money should be examined and stamped.”  See Bancroft’s Hist.  Mexico, iii, p. 669.

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