Elements of Civil Government eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 176 pages of information about Elements of Civil Government.

A State engineer, who superintends the construction and repair of canals and levees;

A commissioner of statistics, who collects statistics relating to public interests;

A commissioner of immigration, who attends to the interests of immigrants;

A labor commissioner, who looks after the interests of the laboring classes;

A bank inspector, or superintendent of banking, who inspects State banks for the protection of the public; and

A State examiner, who investigates the conduct of State institutions, and inspects the State offices, in order to secure honesty and efficiency in public affairs.

In some States two or more of these offices are combined, and in others their duties are performed by the higher officers of the State.

SUGGESTIVE QUESTIONS.

1.  What is the term of office and what the name of the governor of this State?

2.  What are the age and the length of residence required of him?

3.  How many terms can he serve in succession?

4.  Has this State a lieutenant-governor?

5.  If so, name his qualifications.

6.  What is the great seal of the State?

7.  What is the necessity of an auditor?

8.  Why should the superintendent of public instruction make a report?

QUESTION FOR DEBATE

Resolved, That the governor should hold the power of veto.

CHAPTER X.

THE STATE—­(Continued).

JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT.

PURPOSES.—­The judicial department of the State government exists for the sole purpose of administering justice; that is, for the purpose of interpreting the laws and of applying them to particular cases.  The legislature makes the laws, but it can not execute them.  The governor recommends the passage of certain laws, and holds the veto power; but he has no law-making power, nor can he try the most trivial suit.

So the judiciary has no voice in making or in executing the laws, its sole function being to decide their meaning and to apply them in securing justice.  The legislative and executive departments may assist, but it is the peculiar province of the judiciary to protect society and to maintain the rights of the people.

SUPREME COURT.—­The higher courts of the State are of two classes—­those whose jurisdiction includes the entire State, and those whose jurisdiction is confined to particular districts.

The Supreme Court, called in some States the Court of Appeals, is the highest court of the State.  The number of the judges of the supreme court varies in the different States, there being a chief justice and from two to eight associate justices in each State.

In some States the Justices are elected by the people; in others they are elected by the legislature; and in some they are appointed by the governor, and confirmed by the Senate.

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Elements of Civil Government from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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