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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 128 pages of information about Scientific American Supplement No. 822, October 3, 1891.

One of these plates is placed in the instrument, and the field observed; it will be seen that the uniform appearance of the field is changed.  The milled head is turned to the right until the exact point of neutrality is re-established, just as described above in setting the zero.  The scale is read, the observation repeated, the reading taken again, and so on until five or six readings have been made.  The average is taken, readings being rejected which show a divergence of more than 0.3, and the result corrected for the deviation of the zero point, if any was found, the deviation being added if it was to the left, and subtracted if to the right.  If the adjustment of the instrument be correct, the result should be the value of the control plate used, as ascertained from the table, for the temperature of 20 deg..  Each of the three plates is read in the instrument in this way.  A variation of 0.3 from the established values may be allowed for errors of observation, temperature, etc., but in the hands of a careful observer a deviation greater than this with one of the three plates, after a careful setting of the zero, shows that the instrument is not accurately adjusted.

The complete verification of the accurate adjustment of the polariscope by means of three control plates, as given above, should be employed whenever it is set up for the first time by the officer using it, whenever it has sustained any serious shock or injury, and whenever it has been transported from one place to another.  It should also be done at least once a week while the instrument is in active use.

After the complete verification has been performed as described, further checking of the instrument is done by means of one control plate alone, the one approximating 90 deg., and the setting of the zero point is dispensed with, the indication of the scale for sugar solutions being corrected by the amount of deviation shown in the reading of the 90 deg. control plate from its established value as ascertained from the table, at the temperature of the room.

For example:  A sugar solution polarizes 80.5; the control plate just before had given a polarization of 91.4, the temperature of the room during both observations being 25 deg.  C. According to the table the value of the control plate at 25 deg.  C. is 91.7; the reading is, therefore, 0.3 too low, and 0.3 is added to the reading of the sugar solution, making the corrected result 80.8.  The temperature of the room should be ascertained from a standardized thermometer placed close to the instrument and in such a position as to be subject to the same conditions.

PREPARATION OF THE SUGAR SOLUTION FOR POLARIZATION.

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