In case of inflammation of the organs of the breast (lungs, heart), the blood is diverted to the abdomen, legs and lower arms through long-time packs, and the upper parts of the breast are cooled with short compresses.
If the inflammation has its seat in the abdomen, this must be cooled off, while the diversion with longer-time packs is made to the legs and arms.
Ulcers are treated by applying extremely hot compresses, which are frequently changed, and the surrounding parts are cooled off and diversion is effected through nightly packs on the abdomen and on the legs. The hot compresses dissolve the diseased matter, so that the ulcer opens. Thereupon cool compresses of 71 degrees to 64 degrees are applied and allowed to remain for 2-1/2 to 3 hours, which will effect quick healing without the necessity of an operation.
The main rule is never to divert towards a vital organ of the body, such as the lungs or heart; thus, in case of inflammation of the head, diversion must be attempted, not to the breast, but to the arms and legs.
The abdominal pack should be applied on infants and children whenever they show signs of illness in any way, and naturally, in cases of summer complaints, measles, scarlet fever, diphtheria, whooping cough, pneumonia, typhoid fever, in which cases a pack should be applied during the entire course of the illness with slight intermissions only.
As in acute diseases, it is also applied in chronic ones. (See descriptions to follow). Its early application will often serve to prevent serious sickness.
The abdominal pack reaches from the level of the base of the breast bone to the hips. It is made from a piece of linen crash about 12 inches in width which must cover the space from 6 inches below the arm-pits to the hips, while its length must be such that it can encircle the body, overlap upon the abdomen and be secured with tapes at the left side. A further piece of soft linen is needed to pass between the legs, to be fastened to the former, back and front, with safety-pins. The next requirement is a piece of woollen cloth, or blanket, folded double or treble as required, in breadth, about 6 inches wider than the linen crash and of equal length, with a shorter woollen strip for between the thighs, attached like the linen, back and front. For children a linen towel etc. with the accompanying woollen coverings, will be found, as a rule, sufficient; for infants, a properly folded piece of old linen. The linen as well as the woollen material must be properly folded before the pack is made, and measured, so that the patient need not be kept waiting while the pack is being placed on the body.
[Illustration: No. 1]
The above cut shows how to apply the abdominal pack on an adult patient.