Bathe a sprain in as hot water as you can bear, to which has been added a small quantity of vinegar and salt. Slight sprains (as of finger) may be painted with iodine.
The first symptom is a headache followed by a heavy feeling in the pit of the stomach, dimmed eyesight, difficulty in breathing, and a fever. If insensibility follows, lay the person on his back in a cool, shady place, with his head slightly raised. Loosen his clothing, keep his head cold with wet cloths, and pour cold water on his face and chest, until the temperature of his body is lowered and the face becomes pale.
Get used to sun gradually. Use powdered boric acid or ointment. Cocoa butter is also a good preventive.
Gargle the throat with warm water and some salt added, and then bind a woolen sock around it. Keep the sock on until the soreness is gone. Put teaspoonful of chlorate of potash in a cup of water and gargle. Diluted alkalol [sic] is also good for a gargle, or tincture of iron diluted. Fat bacon or pork may be tied around the neck with a dry sock. Swab the throat.
Caused by undigested food in the intestines. Put the boy on a diet, also give him plenty of warm water to drink, or a cup of hot ginger tea.
Heat will always help to soothe the sufferer. A seeded raisin, toasted before the fire, makes a useful poultice for an aching tooth, pressed into the hollow. A bag of hot salt, pressed on the face, relieves pain.
[Illustration: Drill in First Aid]
First aid should teach every boy how to render temporary assistance by improvised means for the relief of the injured one, and the methods by which he can be removed to a place of safety. With this in view, the information given in this chapter incorporates what every camper should know. Before going to camp, boys should be taught the use of the Triangular Bandage. This bandage is used by the United States Government, and is well suited for an emergency bandage. It can be easily made from a handkerchief or a piece of linen. The American Red Cross First Aid Outfit contains a triangular bandage, with methods of application printed thereon. The gauze or roller bandage is more difficult to handle. This, however, is the bandage to control bleeding, etc. Any reliable book on First Aid gives information as to its manipulation.
A dislocation of the finger or toe can generally be reduced by pulling strongly and at the same time pressing where the dislocation is. If the hip, shoulder, or elbow is dislocated, do not meddle with the joint, but make the boy as comfortable as possible by surrounding the joint with flannel cloths wrung out in hot water; support with soft pads, and send for a doctor at once. If the spine is dislocated, lay the boy on his back. Never put him on his side or face, it may be fatal. If he is cold, apply hot blankets to his body, hot water bottle or hot salt bag to the seat of pain.