Carte.—See his Life of the Duke of Ormonde, folio edition, p. 7.
 Ormonde.—The name Ormonde is intended to represent the Irish appellative Ur-Mhumhain, or Eastern Munster. This part of the country was the inheritance of Cairbre Musc.
 Palatine.—The Lords-Palatine were endowed with extraordinary power, and were able to exercise a most oppressive tyranny over the people under their government.
 Execution.—Bermingham was related to De Lucy, which perhaps induced him to deal more harshly with him. De Lucy’s Viceroyalty might otherwise have been popular, as he had won the affections of the people by assisting them during a grievous famine. See page 329 for an illustration of the scene of this tragedy.
 Carrickfergus.—See illustration at the commencement of this chapter.
 Elizabeth.—This lady was married to Lionel, third son of Edward III., in 1352. This prince was created in her right Earl of Ulster. The title and estates remained in possession of different members of the royal family, until they became the special inheritance of the crown in the reign of Edward IV.
 Coigne and livery.—This was an exaction of money, food, and entertainment for the soldiers, and fodder for their horses. A tax of a similar kind existed among the ancient Irish; but it was part of the ordinary tribute paid to the chief, and therefore was not considered an exaction.
 Unsuccessful.—Ireland, Historical and Statistical, vol. i. p. 200.
 Law.—Irish History and Irish Character, p. 69.
 Favour.—Ibid. p. 70.
 Irish law.—A considerable amount of testimony might be produced to prove that the Irish were and are peculiarly a law-loving people; but, in the words of the writer above-quoted, “a people cannot be expected to love and reverence oppression, because it is consigned to a statute-book, and called law.”—p. 71. The truth is, that it was and is obviously the interest of English writers to induce themselves to believe that Irish discontent and rebellion were caused by anything or everything but English oppression and injustice. Even in the present day the Irish are supposed to be naturally discontented and rebellious, because they cannot submit silently to be expelled from their farms without any compensation or any other means of support, either from political or religious motives, and because they object to maintain a religion contrary to their conscience, and which is admitted by its own members to be “clearly a political evil.” See concluding remarks in Mr. Goldwin Smith’s interesting little volume.