Calculating.—We derived the word from calculus, a white stone, the Romans having used small white stones for arithmetical purposes. Probably they taught this custom to the aboriginal English, whose descendants retained it long after.
 Notched.—Quite as primitive an arrangement as the quipus, and yet used in a condition of society called civilized.
 Salary.—The value may be estimated by the current price of provisions: cows from 5s. to 13s. 4d. each; heifers, 3s. 4d. to 5s.; sheep, 8d. to 1s.; ordinary horses, 13s. 4d. to 40s.; pigs, 1s. 6d. to 2s.; salmon, 6d. each; wheat, corn, and malt varied with the produce of the season. Most of the details given above have been taken from Mr. Gilbert’s Viceroys.
 Carbury.—Extensive ruins still mark the site.
 Oppression.—The original Latin is preserved by Fordun. Translations may be found in the Abbe MacGeoghegan’s History of Ireland, p. 323, and in Plowden’s Historical Review. We append one clause, in which these writers complain of the corruption of manners produced by intercourse with the English settlers: “Quod sancta et columbina ejus simplicitas, ex eorum cohabitatione et exemplo reprobo, in serpentinam calliditatem mirabiliter est mutata.”
 Effect.—See Theiner, Vet. Man. Hiber. et Scot. p. 188, for the efforts made by the Holy See to procure peace. The Pope’s letter to Edward III. will be found at p. 206. It is dated Avinione, iii. Kal. Junii, Pontificatus nostri anno secundo.
 Prisoners.—Gilbert’s Viceroys, p. 138.
 Subject.—History of Dundalk, pp. 46-58.
The Butlers—Quarrels of the Anglo-Norman
Nobles—Treachery and its
Consequences—The Burkes proclaim themselves Irish—Opposition
Parliaments—The Statute of Kilkenny and its Effects—Mistakes of
English Writers—Social Life in Ireland described by a French
Knight—“Banishment” to Ireland—Richard II. visits Ireland.
Richard de Burgo, the Red Earl, died in 1326. He took leave of the nobles after a magnificent banquet at Kilkenny. When he had resigned his possessions to his grandson, William, he retired into the Monastery of Athassel, where he expired soon after. In the same year Edward II. attempted to take refuge in Ireland, from the vengeance of his people and his false Queen, the “she-wolf of France.” He failed in his attempt, and was murdered soon after—A.D. 1327.