Roberts, Cambrian Pop. Antiq. 246; Hunt, Popular Romances, 291; New Stat. Account, x. 313.
 Thorpe, Northern Myth. ii. 78.
 Joyce, PN ii. 84. Slan occurs in many names of wells. Well-worship is denounced in the canons of the Fourth Council of Arles.
 Cartailhac, L’Age de Pierre, 74; Bulliot et Thiollier, Mission de S. Martin, 60.
 Sebillot, ii. 284.
 Dalyell, 79-80; Sebillot, ii. 282, 374; see p. 266, infra.
 I have compiled this account of the ritual from notices of the modern usages in various works. See, e.g., Moore, Folk-Lore, v. 212; Mackinley, passim; Hope, Holy Wells; Rh[^y]s, CFL; Sebillot, 175 f.; Dixon, Gairloch, 150 f.
 Brand, ii. 68; Greg. In Glor. Conf. c. 2.
 Sebillot, ii. 293, 296; Folk-Lore, iv. 55.
 Mackinley, 194; Sebillot, ii. 296.
 Folk-Lore, iii. 67; Athenaeum, 1893, 415; Pliny, Ep. viii. 8; Strabo, iv. 287; Diod. Sic. v. 9.
 Walker, Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot. vol. v.; Sebillot, ii. 232. In some early Irish instances a worm swallowed with the waters by a woman causes pregnancy. See p. 352, infra.
 Sebillot, ii. 235-236.
 See Le Braz, i. 61; Folk-Lore, v. 214; Rh[^y]s, CFL i. 364; Dalyell, 506-507; Scott, Minstrelsy, Introd. xliii; Martin, 7; Sebillot, ii. 242 f.; RC ii. 486.
 Jullian, Ep. to Maximin, 16. The practice may have been connected with that noted by Aristotle, of plunging the newly-born into a river, to strengthen it, as he says (Pol. vii. 15. 2), but more probably as a baptismal or purificatory rite. See p. 309, infra.
 Lefevre, Les Gaulois, 109; Michelet, Origines du droit francais, 268.
 See examples of its use in Post, Grundriss der Ethnol. Jurisprudenz, ii. 459 f.
 Roberts, Cambrian Popular Antiquities, 246.
TREE AND PLANT WORSHIP.
The Celts had their own cult of trees, but they adopted local cults—Ligurian, Iberian, and others. The Fagus Deus (the divine beech), the Sex arbor or Sex arbores of Pyrenean inscriptions, and an anonymous god represented by a conifer on an altar at Toulouse, probably point to local Ligurian tree cults continued by the Celts into Roman times. Forests were also personified or ruled by a single goddess, like Dea Arduinna of the Ardennes and Dea Abnoba of the Black Forest. But more primitive ideas prevailed, like that which assigned a whole class of tree-divinities to a forest, e.g. the Fatae Dervones, spirits of the oak-woods of Northern Italy. Groups of trees like Sex arbores were venerated, perhaps for their height, isolation, or some other peculiarity.