Both in Ireland and in Brittany, on November eve food is laid out for the dead who come to visit the houses and to warm themselves at the fire in the stillness of the night, and in Brittany a huge log burns on the hearth. We have here returned to the cult of the dead at the hearth. Possibly the Yule log was once a log burned on the hearth—the place of the family ghosts—at Samhain, when new fire was kindled in each house. On it libations were poured, which would then have been meant for the dead. The Yule log and the log of the Breton peasants would thus be the domestic aspect of the fire ritual, which had its public aspect in the Samhain bonfires.
All this has been in part affected by the Christian feast of All Souls. Dr. Frazer thinks that the feast of All Saints (November 1st) was intended to take the place of the pagan cult of the dead. As it failed to do this, All Souls, a festival of all the dead, was added on November 2nd. To some extent, but not entirely, it has neutralised the pagan rites, for the old ideas connected with Samhain still survive here and there. It is also to be noted that in some cases the friendly aspect of the dead has been lost sight of, and, like the sid-folk, they are popularly connected with evil powers which are in the ascendant on Samhain eve.
 Silius Italicus, v. 652; Lucan, i. 447. Cf. p. 241, infra.
 Ammian. Marcell. xv. 10. 7; Joyce, SH i. 45.
 Bulliot, Fouilles du Mont Beuvray, Autun, 1899, i. 76, 396.
 Le Braz, ii. 67; Sauve, Folk-lore des Hautes Vosges, 295; Berenger-Feraud, Superstitions et Survivances, i. 11.
 Hearn, Aryan Household, 43 f.; Berenger-Feraud, i. 33; Rev. des Trad. i. 142; Carmichael, ii. 329; Cosquin, Trad. Pop. de la Lorraine, i. 82.
 Kennedy, 126. The mischievous brownie who overturns furniture and smashes crockery is an exact reproduction of the Poltergeist.
 Dechelette, Rev. Arch. xxxiii, (1898), 63, 245, 252.
 Cicero, De Leg. ii. 22.
 Dechelette, 256; Reinach, BF 189.