Perhaps a word or two is needed in explanation of the repetitions which will be found here and there in the following pages. They have been necessitated by the form into which I have been obliged to cast the book. A consecutive history of Patriarchal Palestine cannot be written at present, if indeed it ever can be, and the subject therefore has to be treated under a series of separate heads. This has sometimes made repetitions unavoidable without a sacrifice of clearness.
In conclusion it will be noted, that the name of the people who were associated with the Philistines in their wars against Egypt and occupation of Palestine has been changed from Zakkur to Zakkal. This has been in consequence of a keen-sighted observation of Prof. Hommel. He has pointed out that in a Babylonian text of the Kassite period, the people in question are mentioned under the name of Zaqqalu, which settles the reading of the hieroglyphic word. (See the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology for May 1895.)
September 30, 1895.
THE KINGS OF EGYPT AND BABYLONIA DURING THE PATRIARCHAL AGE.
Dynasties xv., XVI., and xvii.—Hyksos or Shepherd-kings (from Manetho).
yrs. mths. 1. Salatis reigned 13 0 2. Beon, or Bnon reigned 44 0 3. Apakhnas, or Pakhnan reigned 36 7 4. Apophis I reigned 61 0 5. Yanias or Annas reigned 50 1 6. Assis reigned 49 2
Of the Sixteenth Dynasty nothing is known. Of the Seventeenth the monuments have given us the names of Apophis ii. (Aa-user-Ra) and Apophis iii. (Aa-ab-tani-Ra), in whose reign the war of independence began under the native prince of Thebes, and lasted for four generations.
Dynasty xviii.— Manetho.
1. Neb-pehuti-Ra, Ahmes (more than 20
2. Ser-ka-Ra, Amon-hotep I., his son (20 years
3. Aa-kheper-ka-Ra, Thothmes I., his son, and
4. Aa-kheper-n-Ra, Thothmes ii., his son,
wife Hatshepsu I. (more than 9 years).