Patriarchal Palestine eBook

Archibald Sayce
This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 240 pages of information about Patriarchal Palestine.
the intimate relations that existed between Babylonia and Western Asia long before the era of the Patriarchs, and we need no longer feel any surprise that Abraham should have experienced so little difficulty in migrating into Canaan, or that he should have found there the same culture as that which he had left behind in Ur.  The language and script of Babylonia must have been almost as well known to the educated Canaanite as to himself, and the records of the Patriarchal Age would have been preserved in the libraries of Canaan down to the time of its conquest by the Israelites.

Perhaps a word or two is needed in explanation of the repetitions which will be found here and there in the following pages.  They have been necessitated by the form into which I have been obliged to cast the book.  A consecutive history of Patriarchal Palestine cannot be written at present, if indeed it ever can be, and the subject therefore has to be treated under a series of separate heads.  This has sometimes made repetitions unavoidable without a sacrifice of clearness.

In conclusion it will be noted, that the name of the people who were associated with the Philistines in their wars against Egypt and occupation of Palestine has been changed from Zakkur to Zakkal.  This has been in consequence of a keen-sighted observation of Prof.  Hommel.  He has pointed out that in a Babylonian text of the Kassite period, the people in question are mentioned under the name of Zaqqalu, which settles the reading of the hieroglyphic word. (See the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology for May 1895.)

A.H.  Sayce.

September 30, 1895.



Dynasties xv., XVI., and xvii.—­Hyksos or Shepherd-kings (from Manetho).

Dynasty xv.—­

yrs.    mths.
1.  Salatis                  reigned     13      0
2.  Beon, or Bnon            reigned     44      0
3.  Apakhnas, or Pakhnan     reigned     36      7
4.  Apophis I                reigned     61      0
5.  Yanias or Annas          reigned     50      1
6.  Assis                    reigned     49      2

Of the Sixteenth Dynasty nothing is known.  Of the Seventeenth the monuments have given us the names of Apophis ii. (Aa-user-Ra) and Apophis iii. (Aa-ab-tani-Ra), in whose reign the war of independence began under the native prince of Thebes, and lasted for four generations.

Dynasty xviii.—­ Manetho.

1.  Neb-pehuti-Ra, Ahmes (more than 20 Amosis.

2.  Ser-ka-Ra, Amon-hotep I., his son (20 years Amenophis I.
    7 months.)

3.  Aa-kheper-ka-Ra, Thothmes I., his son, and Chebron.
    queen Amen-sit.

4.  Aa-kheper-n-Ra, Thothmes ii., his son, and Amensis.
    wife Hatshepsu I. (more than 9 years).

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Patriarchal Palestine from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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