THE SIMLA CONFERENCE
In May, 1913, the British Minister renewed his suggestion of the previous year that China should come to an agreement on the Tibetan question, and ultimately a Tripartite Conference was opened on October 13, at Simla with Mr. Ivan Chen, Sir Henry McMahon, and Lonchen Shatra as plenipotentiaries representing China, Great Britain, and Tibet, respectively.
The following is the substance of the Tibetan proposals:—
1. Tibet shall be an independent State, repudiating the Anglo-Chinese Convention of 1906.
2. The boundary of Tibet in regard to China includes that portion of Sinkiang south of Kuenlun Range and Altyn Tagh, the whole territory of Chinghai, the western portion of Kansuh and Szechuan, including Tachienlu and the northwestern portion of Yunnan, including Atuntzu.
3. Great Britain and Tibet to negotiate, independent of China, new trade regulations.
4. No Chinese officials and troops to be stationed in Tibet.
5. China to recognize Dalai Lama as the head of the Buddhist Religion and institutions in Mongolia and China.
6. China to compensate Tibet for forcible exactions of money or property taken from the Tibetan Government.
The Chinese Plenipotentiary made the following counter-proposals:—
1. Tibet forms an integral part of Chinese territory and Chinese rights of every description which have existed in consequence of this integrity shall be respected by Tibet and recognized by Great Britain. China engages not to convert Tibet into a province and Great Britain not to annex Tibet or any portion of it.
2. China to appoint a Resident at Lhassa with an escort of 2,600 soldiers.
3. Tibet undertakes to be guided by China in her foreign and military affairs and not to enter into negotiations with any foreign Power except through the intermediary of China but this engagement does not exclude direct relations between British Trade Agents and Tibetan authorities as provided in the Anglo-Chinese Convention of 1906.
4. Tibet to grant amnesty to those Tibetans known for their pro-Chinese inclinations and to restore to them their property.