The same conclusion might be arrived at theoretically on the grounds of the recent biological evidence of intersexuality discussed in Part I, which implies that there are no absolute degrees of maleness and femaleness. If there are no 100% males and females, it is obvious that no men and women will entirely conform to ideals of masculine and feminine perfection.
In addition to the imposition of these arbitrary standards of masculinity and femininity, society has forced upon its members conformity to a uniform and institutionalized type of sexual relationship. This institutionalized and inflexible type of sexual activity, which is the only expression of the sexual emotion meeting with social approval, not only makes no allowance for biological variations, but takes even less into account the vastly complex and exceedingly different conditionings of the emotional reactions of the individual sex life. The resulting conflict between the individual desires and the standards imposed by society has caused a great deal of disharmony in the psychic life of its members. The increasing number of divorces and the modern tendency to celibacy are symptomatic of the cumulative effect of this fundamental psychic conflict.
BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR CHAPTER I
1. Burnham, W.H. Mental Hygiene and the Conditioned Reflex. Ped. Sem. Vol. XXIV, Dec, 1917, pp. 449-488.
2. Evans, Elida. The Problem of the Nervous Child. Kegan Paul & Co., London, 1920.
3. Finck, H.T. Romantic Love and Personal Beauty. Macmillan, N.Y., 1891.
4. Hinkle, Beatrice M. On the Arbitrary Use of the Terms “Masculine” and “Feminine.” Psychoanalyt. Rev. Vol. VII, No. 1, Jan., 1920, pp. 15-30.
5. Kempf, E.J. The Tonus of the Autonomic Segments as Causes of Abnormal Behaviour. Jour. Nerv. & Ment. Disease, Jan., 1920, pp. 1-34.
6. Krafft-Ebing, R. Psychopathia Sexualis. Fuchs, Stuttgart, 1907.
7. Pavlov, J.P. L’excitation Psychique des Glandes Salivaires. Jour de Psychologie, 1910, No. 2, pp. 97-114.
8. Watson, J.B. Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviourist. Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1919.
HOW OUR INSTITUTIONS FIT INDIVIDUAL SEX PSYCHOLOGY
Social institutions controlling sex activities based on the assumption that all women are adapted to as well as specialized for reproduction; Neurotic tendencies which unfit women for marriage—the desire for domination; Sexual anaesthesia another neurotic trait which interferes with marital harmony; The conditioning of the sexual impulse to the parent ideal and the erotic fetish as factors which determine mating; Homosexual tendencies and their part in the sex problem; The conflict between the desire for marriage and egoistic ambitions; The social regulations from the viewpoint of individual psychology.