What are the outstandingly significant sex differences which application of the above criterion leaves? (1) A less active and more uneven metabolism of woman; (2) Associated with this, less physical strength on the average—hence an inferior adaptability to some kinds of work, resulting in a narrower range of choice of occupation, disadvantageous in competitive society; (3) But the one fundamental difference, to which all the others are as nothing, is the specialization of the mammalian female body and metabolism to furnish the intra-maternal environment (approximately nine months in the human species) for the early development of the young and lactation for some months afterward.
This last may be said to include the former two, which were arbitrarily placed first because they are always in evidence, whether reproduction is undertaken or not. This takes us out of cell and endocrine biology and into the general problem in group adjustment to environment which that specialization entails.
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2. Goldschmidt, R. Preliminary Report on Further Experiments in Inheritance and Determination of Sex. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc, 1916. Vol. II, No. 1, pp. 53f.
3. Goldschmidt, R. A Case of Facultative Parthenogenesis. Biol. Bulletin, 1917. Vol. XXXII, No. 1, p. 38.
4. Goldschmidt, R. Intersexuality and the Endocrine Aspect of Sex. Endocrinology, Vol. I, p. 434. 1917. Fine summary of the work done on moths, birds and various forms by many biologists.
5. Riddle, Dr Oscar. Quantitative Basis of Sex as indicated by the Sex-Behaviour of Doves from a Sex-Controlled Series. Science, n.s., Vol. 39, p. 440, 1914.
6. Riddle, Dr Oscar. Sex Control and Known Correlations in Pegeons. Amer. Nat. Vol. L, pp. 385-410.
7. Benedict, F.G. & Emmes, L.E. A Comparison of the Basal Metabolism of Men and Women. Jour. Biol. Chem. Vol. 20. No. 3. 1914.
8. Schaefer, Sir E.A. Endocrine Glands and Internal Secretions. Stanford University, 1914, p. 91.
9. Paton, D. Noel. Regulators of Metabolism. London, 1913, p. 146.
10. Weininger, Otto. Sex and Character. London & N.Y., 1906. Eng. trans. of Geschlecht u. Charakter, Vienna & Leipzig, 1901 & 1903.
11. Leland, C.G. The Alternate Sex. London, 1904.
12. Carpenter, Edw. Love’s Coming of Age. London, 1906.
13. George, W.L. The Intelligence of Woman, Boston, 1916.
14. Bell, Dr Blair. The Sex Complex, London, 1916.
15. Bell, Dr. Blair. Gynaecology. London, 1919.
16. Bateson, W. Mendel’s Principles of Heredity. 1909, pp. 169-70.
17. Marshall, F.H. A Physiology of Reproduction. London, 1910.