the feet of two teachers representing the new and the
old, the West and the East. In the College classroom
he received religious instruction from Dr. Hastie,
the distinguished theologian who afterwards taught
Scottish students of theology in the University of
Glasgow. At the same time he was in the habit
of visiting the famous Bengali ascetic, Ramkrishna
Paramhansa, already mentioned, and of communing with
him. Returning from Chicago crowned with the
honour which his earnestness, his eloquence, his power
of reasoning, his attractive manner, and his striking
physique and dress called forth, Young India lionised
him; Old India met in Calcutta and resolved that Mr.
Dutt of kayasth caste must drop the brahman title
, which he had assumed, before they
could recognise him. In 1895, having gone to Dakhineswar,
the old residence of his Hindu master, Ramkrishna,
Swami Vivekananda was actually expelled from the temple
where his master had been wont to worship. The
Chicago representative of Hinduism had been guilty
of the sins of crossing the sea and of living like
a European, and so he must be disowned and the temple
purged of his presence. After a few years, Swami
Vivekananda bravely settled down to unobtrusive, philanthropic
work, one had almost said Christian philanthropic
, in a suburb of Calcutta, denouncing caste
and idolatry and the outcasting of those who had crossed
the sea, and recommending the Hindus to take to flesh-eating.
There, and while so engaged, in 1902 he died.
How shall we ticket that strange personage? Kayasth
caste as he was born, or new brahman? Swami or
B.A. of a Mission College of the modern Calcutta University?
A conservative or a reformer? Hindu ascetic or
Christian philanthropist? He stands for India
in transition, old and new ideas commingling.
He is a typical product of the English and Christian
education given to multitudes in India to-day.
“To lift the woman’s fallen
Upon an equal pedestal with man’s.”
“The woman’s cause is man’s;
they rise or sink
Together, dwarfed or godlike, bond or
TENNYSON, The Princess.
[Sidenote: Social inferiority of women.]
Next to caste, the chief social feature of India is
the position of women in the community. Hindus
and Mahomedans alike assign to the female sex an inferior
position. In Mahomedan mosques, for example, no
woman is ever seen at prayer; she would not be permitted
to take part. Only by the neglect of female children
in India, and the special disadvantages from which
women suffer there, can it be explained why in India
in 1901 there were only 963 females to every 1000
males. In India, as in Europe and all the world
over, more boys than girls are born, but in the course
of life the balance is soon redressed, and in the whole
population in every country in Europe, except Italy