Nansen’s voyage is for the present the final achievement of Arctic exploration, but his Greenland method of deserting his base has been followed by Andree, who in the autumn of 1897 started in a balloon for the Pole, provisioned for a long stay in the Arctic regions. Nothing has been heard of him for the last twelve months, but after the example of Dr. Nansen there is no reason to fear just at present for his safety, and the present year may possibly see his return after a successful carrying out of one of the great aims of geographical discovery. It is curious that the attention of the world should be at the present moment directed to the Arctic regions for the two most opposite motives that can be named, lust for gold and the thirst for knowledge and honour.
[Authorities: Greely, Handbook of Arctic Discoveries, 1896.]
cir. 600. Marseilles founded.
570. Anaximander of Miletus invents maps and the gnomon.
501. Hecataeus of Miletus writes the first geography.
450. Himilco the Carthaginian said to have visited Britain.
446. Herodotus describes Egypt and Scythia.
cir. 450. Hanno the Carthaginian sails down the west coast of
Africa as far as Sierra Leone.
cir. 333. Pytheas visits Britain and the Low Countries.
332. Alexander conquers Persia and visits India.
330. Nearchus sails from the Indus to the Arabian Gulf.
cir. 300. Megasthenes describes the Punjab.
cir. 200. Eratosthenes founds scientific geography.
100. Marinus of Tyre, founder of mathematical geography.
60-54. Caesar conquers Gaul; visits Britain, Switzerland, and Germany.
20. Strabo describes the Roman Empire. First mention of Thule
bef. 12. Agrippa compiles a Mappa Mundi, the foundation of
all succeeding ones.
150. Ptolemy publishes his geography.
230. The Peutinger Table pictures the Roman roads.
400-14. Fa-hien travels through and describes Afghanistan and India.
499. Hoei-Sin said to have visited the kingdom of Fu-sang, 20,000
furlongs east of China (identified by some with California).
518-21. Hoei-Sing and Sung-Yun visit and describe the Pamirs and the
540. Cosmas Indicopleustes visits India, and combats the sphericity
of the globe.
629-46. Hiouen-Tshang travels through Turkestan, Afghanistan, India,
and the Pamirs.
671-95. I-tsing travels through and describes Java, Sumatra, and India.
776. The Mappa Mundi of Beatus.
851-916. Sulaiman and Abu Zaid visit China.
861. Naddod discovers Iceland.
884. Ibn Khordadbeh describes the trade routes between Europe and
cir. 890. Wulfstan and athere sail to the Baltic and the North Cape. cir. 900. Gunbioern discovers Greenland.
912-30. The geographer Mas’udi describes