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Joseph Jacobs
This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 140 pages of information about The Story of Geographical Discovery.
into the Bathurst plains.  In 1828-29 Captain Sturt increased the knowledge of the interior by tracing the course of the two great rivers Darling and Murray.  In 1848 the German explorer Leichhardt lost his life in an attempt to penetrate the interior northward; but in 1860 two explorers, named Burke and Wills, managed to pass from south to north along the east coast; while, in the four years 1858 to 1862, John M’Dowall Stuart performed the still more difficult feat of crossing the centre of the continent from south to north, in order to trace a course for the telegraphic line which was shortly afterwards erected.  By this time settlements had sprung up throughout the whole coast of Eastern Australia, and there only remained the western desert to be explored.  This was effected in two journeys of John Forrest, between 1868 and 1874, who penetrated from Western Australia as far as the central telegraphic line; while, between 1872 and 1876, Ernest Giles performed the same feat to the north.  Quite recently, in 1897, these two routes were joined by the journey of the Honourable Daniel Carnegie from the Coolgardie gold fields in the south to those of Kimberley in the north.  These explorations, while adding to our knowledge of the interior of Australia, have only confirmed the impression that it was not worth knowing.

[Authorities: Rev. G. Grimm, Discovsry and Exploration of Australia (Melbourne, 1888); A. F. Calvert, Discovery of Australia, 1893; Exploration of Australia, 1895; Early Voyages to Australia, Hakluyt Society.]

CHAPTER XI

EXPLORATION AND PARTITION OF AFRICA:  PARK—­LIVINGSTONE—­STANLEY

We have seen how the Portuguese had slowly coasted along the shore of Africa during the fifteeenth century in search of a way to the Indies.  By the end of the century mariners portulanos gave a rude yet effective account of the littoral of Africa, both on the west and the eastern side.  Not alone did they explore the coast, but they settled upon it.  At Amina on the Guinea coast, at Loando near the Congo, and at Benguela on the western coast, they established stations whence to despatch the gold and ivory, and, above all, the slaves, which turned out to be the chief African products of use to Europeans.  On the east coast they settled at Sofala, a port of Mozambique; and in Zanzibar they possessed no less than three ports, those first visited by Vasco da Gama and afterwards celebrated by Milton in the sonorous line contained in the gorgeous geographical excursus in the Eleventh Book—­

  “Mombaza and Quiloa and Melind.”
    —­Paradise Lost, xi. 339.

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