4. The extinct Mammals with which man coexisted are referable in many cases to species which presumably required a very different climate to that now prevailing in Western Europe. How long a period, however, has been consumed in the bringing about of the climatic changes thus indicated, we have no means of calculating with any approach to accuracy.
5. Some of the deposits in which the remains of man have been found associated with the bones of extinct Mammals, are such as to show incontestably that great changes in the physical geography and surface-configuration of Western Europe have taken place since the period of their accumulation. We have, however, no means at present of judging of the lapse of time thus indicated except by analogies and comparisons which may be disputed.
6. The human implements which are associated with the remains of extinct Mammals, themselves bear evidence of an exceedingly barbarous condition of the human species. Post-Pliocene or “Palaeolithic” Man was clearly unacquainted with the use of any of the metals. Not only so, but the workmanship of these ancient races was much inferior to that of the later tribes, who were also ignorant of the metals, and who also used nothing but weapons and tools of stone, bone, &c.
7. Lastly, it is only with the human remains of the Post-Pliocene period that the palaeontologist proper has to deal. When we enter the “Recent” period, in which the remains of Man are associated with those of existing species of Mammals, we pass out of the region of pure palaeontology into the domain of the Archaeologist and the Ethnologist.
The following are some of the principal works and memoirs to which the student may refer for information as to the Post-Pliocene deposits and the remains which they contain, as well as to the primitive races of mankind:—
(1) ‘Elements of Geology.’
(2) ‘Antiquity of Man.’ Lyell.
(3) ‘Palaeontological Memoirs.’ Falconer.
(4) ‘The Great Ice-age.’ James Geikie.
(5) ‘Manual of Palaeontology.’ Owen.
(6) ‘British Fossil Mammals and Birds.’ Owen.
(7) ‘Cave-Hunting.’ Boyd Dawkins.
(8) ‘Prehistoric Times.’ Lubbock.
(9) ‘Ancient Stone Implements.’ Evans.
(10) ‘Prehistoric Man.’ Daniel Wilson.
(11) ‘Prehistoric Races of the United States.’ Foster.
(12) ‘Manual of Geology.’ Dana.
(13) ‘Monograph of Pleistocene Mammalia’ (Palaeontographical
Society). Boyd Dawkins and Sanford.
(14) ’Monograph of the Post-Tertiary Entomostraca of Scotland, &c.,
with an Introduction on the Post-Tertiary Deposits of Scotland’
(Ibid.) G. S. Brady, H. W. Crosskey, and D. Robertson.
(15) “Reports on Kent’s Cavern”—’British Association Reports.’
(16) “Reports on the Victoria Cavern, Settle”—’British Association