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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 303 pages of information about Ice-Caves of France and Switzerland.


[Footnote 122:  Several of these caves are referred to by Reich, Beobachtungen ueber die Temperatur des Gesteins in verschiedenen Tiefen in den Gruben des Saechsischen Erzgebirges; Freiberg, 1834.]

[Footnote 123:  Naturwunder des Oesterr.  Kaiserthums, iii. 40.]

[Footnote 124:  Mittheil. des Oesterr.  Alpen-Vereins, ii. 441.  I am indebted to G.C.  Churchill, Esq., one of the authors of the well-known book on the Dolomite Mountains, for my knowledge of the existence of this cave, and of the Kolowrathoehle.]

[Footnote 125:  Beschreibung merkwuerdiger Hoehlen, ii. 283.]

[Footnote 126:  Geognostische Reschreibung des bayerischen Alpengebirges; Gotha, 1861.]

[Footnote 127:  These constitute the upper bone bed and Dachstein limestone beds of the uppermost part of the Trias formation.]

[Footnote 128:  Hereynia Curiosa, cap. v.  The same account is given in Behren’s Natural History of the Harz Forest, of which an English translation was published in 1730.]

[Footnote 129:  See also Muncke, Handbuch der Naturlehre, iii. 277; Heidelberg, 1830.]

[Footnote 130:  See page 58.  The more modern spelling is frais-puits.]

[Footnote 131:  liv. 292.]

[Footnote 132:  Described by Schaller, Leitmeritzer Kreis, p. 271, and by Sommer, in the same publication, p. 331.  I have not been able to procure this book.]

[Footnote 133:  Boehmens Topogr., i. 339.  This reference is given by Professor Pleischl.]

[Footnote 134:  Annalen, lxxxi. 579.]

[Footnote 135:  I was told, in 1864, by a chamois-hunter of Les Plans, a valley two hours above Bex, that some years before he was cutting a wood-road through the forest early in September, when, at a depth of 6 inches below the surface, he found the ground frozen hard.  We visited the place together, but could find no ice.  The whole ground was composed of a mass of loose round stones, with a covering of earth and moss, and the air in the interstices was peculiarly cold and dry.]

[Footnote 136:  Beobachtungen, &c. (see note on p. 258), 181.]

[Footnote 137:  Reich found the temperature of the ice to be 31.982 deg.  F., that of the air in the immediate vicinity 34.025 deg., and the rock, at a little distance, 32.765 deg..]

[Footnote 138:  iii. 150.]

[Footnote 139:  See many careful descriptions of these caves in the Annales de Chimie; also, an account by Professor Ansted, in his Science, Scenery, and Art, p. 29.  M. Chaptal (Ann. de Chimie, iv. 34) found the lowest temperature of the currents of cold air to be 36º.5 F.; but M. Girou de Buzareingues (Ann. de Chimie et de Phys., xlv. 362) found that with a strong north wind, the temperature of the external air being 55º.4 F., the

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