Great Britain and the American Civil War eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 680 pages of information about Great Britain and the American Civil War.

[Footnote 1163:  Bigelow, Retrospections, I, p. 563, states that great efforts were made by the Government to stimulate immigration both to secure a labour supply and to fill up the armies.  Throughout and even since the war the charge has been made by the South that the foreign element, after 1862, preponderated in Northern armies.  There is no way of determining the exact facts in regard to this for no statistics were kept.  A Memorandum prepared by the U.S.  War Department, dated July 15, 1898, states that of the men examined for physical fitness by the several boards of enrolment, subsequent to September 1, 1864 (at which time, if ever, the foreign element should have shown preponderance), the figures of nativity stood:  United States, 341,569; Germany, 54,944; Ireland, 50,537; British-America, 21,645; England, 16,196; and various other countries no one of which reached the 3,500 mark.  These statistics really mean little as regards war-time immigration since they do not show when the foreign-born came to America; further, from the very first days of the war there had been a large element of American citizens of German and Irish birth in the Northern armies.  Moreover, the British statistics of emigration, examined in relation to the figures given above, negative the Southern accusation.  In 1861, but 38,000 subjects of Great Britain emigrated to the United States; in 1862, 48,000; while in 1863 the number suddenly swelled to 130,000, and this figure was repeated in 1864.  In each year almost exactly two-thirds were from Ireland.  Now of the 94,000 from Ireland in 1863, considering the number of Irish-American citizens already in the army, it is evident that the bulk must have gone into labour supply.]

[Footnote 1164:  Parliamentary Papers, 1863, Commons, LXXII.  “Correspondence with Mr. Adams respecting enlistment of British subjects.”]

[Footnote 1165:  The Times, Nov. 21, 1863.  Also March 31, 1864.]

[Footnote 1166:  Parliamentary Papers, 1864, Commons, LXII.  “Correspondence respecting the Enlistment of British seamen at Queenstown.”  Also “Further Correspondence,” etc.]

[Footnote 1167:  For facts and much correspondence on the Phinney case see Parliamentary Papers, 1864, Commons, LXII.  “Correspondence respecting the Enlistment of British subjects in the United States Army.”  Also “Further Correspondence,” etc.]

[Footnote 1168:  Hansard, 3rd Ser., CLXXIV, p. 628, and CLXXV, p. 353, and CLXXVI, p. 2161.  In the last of these debates, July 28, 1864, papers were asked for on “Emigration to America,” and readily granted by the Government.]

[Footnote 1169:  Walpole, History of Twenty-five Years, Vol.  I, Ch.  VI.]

[Footnote 1170:  In the Cabinet, Palmerston (and to some extent Russell) was opposed by Granville and Clarendon (the latter of whom just at this time entered the Cabinet) and by the strong pro-German influence of the Queen. (Fitzmaurice, Granville, I, Ch.  XVI.)]

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