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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 91 pages of information about Manual of Ship Subsidies.

[Footnote EE:  Lloyd’s Register, 1910-11.]

[Footnote EF:  Daily Con.  Repts., no. 106, May 1, 1911.]

[Footnote EG:  Meeker.  Also Parliamentary papers.]

[Footnote EH:  Lloyd’s Register, 1910-11.]

CHAPTER IX

DENMARK—­NORWAY—­SWEDEN

Denmark pays postal subventions to two steamship companies for carrying the mails to Sweden and to Iceland, and “trade” subsidies to other companies to encourage particularly the export trade.  The latter are payments directly for reductions in freight rates, which are supervised by the Government.[EI] The postal subventions are not large, and they are generally accepted as only fair remuneration for service rendered.[EJ]

* * * * *

Norway and Sweden both give subsidies for mail carriage solely, and grant no direct bounties on shipping.  Both, however, undertake the furtherance of commerce and navigation through “State contributions,” in the form of loans to shipowners from Government funds.[EK] Such aid has been granted to several steamship lines.  In 1910 the Swedish Government granted a loan equivalent to half a million dollars American money toward the capital of a new line between Swedish ports and New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore.[EL] Shipping is exempt from taxation in both countries.[EM] The Swedish tonnage in 1910 stood at a total of 1472 vessels of 918,079 tons.[EN]

* * * * *

In Norway the laws put no restriction upon shipowners as to purchase in any market.  Most of her steam tonnage is foreign-bought, and largely second-hand.  Her merchant fleet, however, consists for the greater part, of wooden sailing-ships, and these are mostly of domestic build.[EM] Besides the mail subsidies the Government grant “trade” subsidies to some forty Norwegian steamship companies to enable them to maintain routes to various foreign ports.  These subsidies amount to about half a million dollars annually.[EO] In 1910 Norway stood in tonnage fourth among European maritime countries:  her total tonnage being 2,014,533 tons.[EP] Norway has by far the largest percentage of sea-faring population, and her mariners are found in the crews of all nations in Europe and America.

FOOTNOTES: 

[Footnote EI:  Meeker.]

[Footnote EJ:  Parl. papers.]

[Footnote EK:  Meeker.]

[Footnote EL:  U.S.  Con.  Rept., no. 82, 1910, p. 106.]

[Footnote EM:  Meeker.]

[Footnote EN:  Lloyd’s Register, 1910-11.]

[Footnote EO:  Report of (U.S.) commissioner of navigation for 1909.]

[Footnote EP:  Lloyd’s Register, 1910-11.]

CHAPTER X

RUSSIA

In Russia steamship lines were early subsidized with mileage bounties, besides receiving postal subventions; and later the Government adopted the policy of returning the Suez Canal tolls to the subsidized lines.  The mileage subsidies are direct bounties avowedly for the encouragement of Russian navigation, and are very large.[EQ]

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