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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 91 pages of information about Manual of Ship Subsidies.

[Footnote BU:  Meeker.]

[Footnote BV:  For this law see Meeker.]

[Footnote BW:  U.S.  Consul Robert Skinner, Marseilles; Con.  Repts., xol.  XVIII (1900), p. 36.]

[Footnote BX:  Viallates.]

[Footnote BY:  Meeker.]

[Footnote BZ:  North American Review, vol.  CLXXXIV, 1907.]

[Footnote CA:  Embracing voyages within the limits of the ports of the Mediterranean, North Africa, and Europe below the Arctic circle—­Meeker.]

[Footnote CB:  Meeker and Viallates, summaries of this law.]

[Footnote CC:  North American Review, vol.  CLXXXIV, 1907.]

[Footnote CD:  For this law see Senate Doc. no. 488, 59th Cong., 1st sess.]

[Footnote CE:  North American Review, vol.  CLXXXIV, 1907.]

[Footnote CF:  Meeker.]

[Footnote CG:  Meeker.]

[Footnote CH:  Lloyd’s Register, 1910-11.]

[Footnote CI:  Senate Rept., no. 10, 59th, Cong., 1st sess.]

CHAPTER IV

GERMANY

Germany was a close follower of France in the adoption of the direct ship bounty system.  Only two months after the promulgation of the initial French law of 1881, Bismarck brought the question before the Reichstag, with an exhibit of this act.  In an elaborate memorial (April 6, 1881) he reviewed the general subject of State bounties and subsidies to shipping in various maritime countries, and closed with this pointed declaration:  “It is deserving of serious consideration whether, under the circumstances as given, German shipping and German commerce can hope” for further prosperous developments as against the competition of other nations aided by public funds and assistance.[CJ]

At this time the German marine was represented by a substantial fleet of merchant steamships, but all were foreign-built, mostly from British ship-yards.  The Government was paying only a postal subsidy of about forty-seven thousand dollars—­a sum in proportion to the weight of the parcels forwarded—­in the overseas trade to the participating German steam lines.  A first step had been taken indirectly in favor of domestic shipbuilding six years earlier (1879), when Bismarck, in introducing the general protective system, exempted this industry, and free entry was permitted to German ship-yards of materials used in the construction and equipment of merchant as well as of war-ships, which then were only on the domestic stocks.[CK] Bismarck’s proposal of 1881, to meet French subsidies with German subsidies, was avowedly with the single object of promoting with State aid a German mercantile marine.

The project was brought before the Reichstag early in 1884 and warmly discussed.  Earnest protests were raised against it by shipping merchants of the chief German seaports;[CL] while earnest support came from other merchants and varied interests.  The initial proposal was for the establishment of a subsidized mail service by German steamships.  It contemplated an annual subsidy of four million marks, with fifteen years’ contracts, for such service between Germany and Australia and East Asia.  The measure was defeated in the Reichstag that year.  Brought forward the next year (1885), and in a new form, it was finally enacted in April and went into effect the following July.

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