After poultry is cleaned and washed inside and out with cold water, fill inside with dressing. Have at least a yard fine twine in trussing needle. Turn wings across back so that the pinions touch. Run needle through thick part of wing under bone, through body and wing on other side; return in same way, but passing needle in over bone, tie firmly, leaving several inches of twine. Press legs up against body, run needle through thigh, body and second thigh, return, going round bone in same way; tie firmly. Run needle through ends of legs, return, passing needle through rump; if opening is badly torn, one or two stitches may be needed; or if steel skewers are used put one through wings of fowl and other through opposite thigh. Then wind twine in figure eight from one handle of skewer to other. Rub all over with soft butter and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Place on rack in roasting pan and put into very hot oven. Make basting mixture with 1/2 cup each of butter and water; keep hot and baste every 10 or 15 minutes. Roast 3 hours for 8 pound turkey, 1 to 2 hours for chicken and ducks. Keep oven very hot. If bird is very large and heavy, cover breasts and legs with several thicknesses of paper to keep from burning.
2 cups stale bread 1 tablespoon finely cut onion 1 tablespoon drippings 1 tablespoon finely cut parsley 1/2 tablespoon salt 1/8 teaspoon pepper 1/4 teaspoon paprika powdered sage if desired
Soak bread in cold water 5 minutes and press out all water. Put drippings and onion into pan and cook slowly, stirring constantly until onion is tender but not brown. Add bread, parsley and seasoning, and mix well together.
20 oysters 2 tablespoons butter 4 cups bread crumbs 1 tablespoon chopped parsley 1/4 teaspoon pepper 1/2 tablespoon salt
Drain and rinse oysters with cold water. Put butter in saucepan with oysters and bring to boiling point; add bread crumbs, parsley and seasoning; mix carefully, so that oysters will not be broken.
Boil neck, gizzard and wing tips together until tender. Pour off excess of fat in pan in which poultry has been roasted; add enough stock from the gizzard and neck to make 3 cups of gravy. Chop gizzard, liver and heart and add; add 1 teaspoon finely cut onion, 1 teaspoon salt, 1/8 teaspoon pepper, 2 tablespoons flour mixed with a little cold water and boil 3 minutes.
Singe, wash and clean chicken; cut into pieces as follows; two second joints, two drumsticks, two wings, breast cut into two pieces, backbone cut into four pieces. Wipe with piece of cheesecloth; season with salt and pepper and dredge in flour. Put into hot frying pan with 2 tablespoons bacon drippings or butter and brown quickly. Add a little water, cover, reduce heat and cook slowly until tender. Remove chicken; mix 1 tablespoon flour with whatever gravy or fat is in pan; add 1 cup cold milk; boil until thick. This gravy should be rich cream color.