The basis of all good soups is the stock or liquid in which bones, cooked or uncooked meat or vegetables have been boiled.
The proportions for soup stock are generally one pound meat and bone to one quart water. The meat should be cut into small pieces and put into kettle with bones, covered with cold water and cooked slowly for several hours.
Gravies and browned pieces of meat are often added to the soup kettle for color and flavoring.
The stock should be strained, quickly cooled and all fat removed.
Cream soups are made with a cream sauce foundation to which is added strained pulp of vegetables or fish.
BROWN SOUP STOCK
6 lbs. shin of beef 3 to 6 quarts cold water 1 bay leaf 6 cloves 1 tablespoon mixed herbs 2 sprigs parsley 1/2 cup carrot 1/2 cup turnip 1/2 cup celery 1/2 cup onion
Wipe beef and cut lean meat into cubes; brown one-third in hot frying pan; put remaining two-thirds with bone and fat into soup kettle; add water and let stand 30 minutes. Place on back of range; add browned meat and heat gradually to boiling point. Cover and cook slowly six hours; add vegetables and seasoning one hour before it is finished. Strain and put away to cool. Remove all fat; reheat and serve.
2 cups beans 2 tablespoons finely cut onion 2 tablespoons finely cut bacon 1 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon pepper 2 tablespoons chopped parsley 1 teaspoon thyme 3 tablespoons flour
Soak beans in water over night. Drain and put into saucepan with six cups boiling water and boil slowly two hours or until soft; add onion and bacon which have been fried light brown; boil five minutes; add salt, pepper, parsley and thyme. Mash beans with back of spoon. Add flour which has been mixed with a little cold water; boil five minutes and serve.
This is the foundation or sauce for many fish and vegetable cream soups.
1 quart milk 1 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon white pepper 2 tablespoons flour 1 tablespoon butter 1 cup boiling water
Scald milk and add seasoning; thicken with flour and butter rubbed to a cream with boiling water and boil two minutes.
For pea soup boil and mash 2 cups green peas and add to sauce.
For cream of celery boil 2 cups cut celery until tender; rub through sieve, add to milk and proceed as above.
For potato soup use 6 large or 10 medium-sized potatoes boiled and mashed fine. Stir into milk, proceed as above, and strain. Add a tablespoon chopped parsley just before serving.
For corn soup use same foundation, adding a can of corn, or corn cut from 6 ears boiled fresh corn and boil 15 minutes.
For cream of fish soup add to milk about one pound of boiled fish, rubbed through sieve and proceed as above.