[Footnote 36: “Illustr. of Univ. Prog.,” p. 343.]
[Footnote 37: Vol. II, p.580.]
[Footnote 38: “Discourses,” pp. 279-288.]
[Footnote 39: “The Glacial Nightmare,” Preface, vii.]
And thus the matter remains even to-day, in this second decade of the twentieth century. Geology has never yet been regenerated, as have all the other sciences, by being delivered from the caprice of subjective speculations and a priori theories and being placed on the secure basis of objective and demonstrable fact, in accordance with the principles of that inductive method of investigation which was instituted by Bacon and which has become so far universal in the other sciences that it is everywhere known as the scientific method. In accordance with this method, theories in all the other sciences are always kept well subordinated to facts; and whenever unequivocal facts are found manifestly contradicting a theory no matter how venerable, the theory must go to make way for the facts. In other words, the theoretical parts of the various other sciences are always kept revised from time to time, to keep them in line with the new discoveries that have been made. There has been no lack of astonishing discoveries of new facts in geology during the past half century or so, while all the other sciences have been making such astonishing progress. But for over seventy five years geology has not made a single advance movement in its theoretical aspects; indeed, in all its important general principles it has scarcely changed in a hundred years. I shall leave it to the reader to judge whether this is a case of almost miraculous perfection from the beginning, or of arrested development.