[Footnote 385: In De Faria no dates are given of these transactions, except that Barreto sailed from Lisbon in April 1569.—E.]
[Footnote 386: In modern geography the country called Monomotapa in the text is known by the name of Mocaranga, while Monomotapa is understood to be the title of the sovereign. It is sometimes called Senna by the Portuguese, from the name of a fort possessed by them in the interior.—E.]
On his arrival at Mozambique, Barreto went to subdue the king of Pate, who had revolted against the Portuguese authority. In his instructions, Barreto was ordered to undertake nothing of importance without the advice and concurrence of Francisco do Monclaros, a Jesuit, which was the cause of the failure of this enterprise. It was a great error to subject a soldier to the authority of a priest, and a most presumptuous folly in the priest to undertake a commission so foreign to his profession. There were two roads to the mines, one of which was through the dominions of Monomotapa, and the other by way of Sofala. Barreto was disposed to have taken the latter, but Monclaros insisted upon the former, and carried his point against the unanimous votes of the council of war; so that the first step in this expedition led to its ruin. But before entering upon the narrative of events, it may be proper to give some account of the climate, quality, and extent of the country.
From Cape Delgado in lat. 10 deg. 1O’ S. to Mozambique in 14 deg. 50’, the coast is somewhat bent in the form of a bow, in which space are the islands of Pujaros, Amice, Mocoloe, Matembo, Querimba, Cabras, and others, with the rivers Paudagi, Menluanc, Mucutii, Mucululo, Situ, Habe, Xanga, Samoco, Veloso, Pinda, Quisimaluco and Quintagone, with the bays of Xanga and Fuego, and the sands of Pinda. From Mozambique in lat. 14 deg. 5O’ S. to the port or bay of Asuca in 21 deg. 8O’, the coast falls off to the westwards, opposite to the Pracel de Sofala or great bank of Pracel, on the coast of Madagascar, the dangerous Scylla and Charibdis of those seas. On this coast are the rivers Mocambo, Angoxa, or Bayones, Mossige, Mojuncoale, Sangage, and others, with many islands, and the ports of Quilimane and Luabo; the rivers Tendanculo, Quiloe, Sabam, Bagoe, Miaue, and Sofala, with the opposite islands of Inbausato, Quiloane, Mambone, Molimon, and Quilamancohi. Between Cape Bosiqua or St Sebastian in lat. 21 deg. 40’ S. and Cape Corientes in 24 deg. S. is the great bay of Sauca, into which falls the river Inhamhane, where there is a great trade for ivory. From the frequent recurrence of the soft letters L and M in these names, it may be inferred that the language of that country is by no means harsh. From the mouth of the Cuama or Zambeze in the east, the empire of Monomotapa extends 250 leagues into the interior of Africa, being divided by the great river Zambeze, into which falls the Chiri or