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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 486 pages of information about Observations on the Mussulmauns of India.

[20] Kiblaah is the holy place to which men turn their face when offering
    up their prayer to God, as the Jews face Jerusalem.  Literally,
    ‘worshipping place’. [Author.] [Qiblah:  the direction of prayer
    was changed by the Prophet from Jerusalem to Mecca (Koran, ii.
    138-9, with Sale’s note).]

[21] See p. 72.

[22] Munkir, or Munkar, and Nakir are the two recording angels.

[23] See p. 78.

[24] Du’a.

[25] Al-Mahdi, ‘the directed one’, who will appear in the last day. 
    According to the Shi’ahs, he has already appeared in the person of
    Muhammad Abu’l-Qasim, the 12th Imam.  Later claimants are
    Sayyid Ahmad, who fought against the Sikhs in 1826; Muhammad Ahmad ibn
    Sayyid Abdulla, who fled after the fatal day of Omdurman, and was
    killed in battle in 1899.

[26] Hayat[u’]l-Qulub compiled by Muhammad Baqir, whose last
    work was published A.D. 1627.  It has been partly translated into
    English by J.L.  Morrick, Boston, 1850.

[27] Sirat, the bridge over which the soul must cross on its way to
    Paradise.

[28] Mizan, the Balance, with which the deeds of the dead man are
    weighed.—­Koran, xxi. 47.

[29] May not this be a poetical symbol, similar to the scythe? [Author.]

[30] Baqarah ’Id, ‘cow festival,’ held on the 10th of the month
    Zu’l-Hijjah, the month of pilgrimage, the attempted sacrifice of
    Ishmael having, it is said, occurred at Mount Mina, near Mecca.

[31] Kiramu’l-Katibin, one recording the good, the other the
    evil actions of the dead.

[32] Harun-al-Rashid, ‘Aaron the Orthodox’, fifth Abbasid Caliph,
    of Baghdad (A.D. 763 or 776-809), best known from The Arabian Nights.

[33] Beti.

LETTER VII

Namaaz (daily prayer).—­The Mussulmaun prayers.—­Their different names and times.—­Extra prayer-service.—­The Mosque.—­Ablutions requisite previous to devotion.—­Prostrations at prayers.—­Mosque described.—­The Mussulmauns’ Sabbath.—­Its partial observance.—­The amusements of this life not discontinued on the Sabbath.—­Employment of domestics undiminished on this day.—­Works of importance then commenced.—­Reasons for appropriating Friday to the Sabbath.—­The Jews opposed to Mahumud.—­The Prophet receives instructions from the angel Gabriel.—­Their import and definition.  Remarks of a Commentator on the Khoraun.—­Prayer of intercession.—­Pious observance of Christmas Day by a Native Lady.—­Opinions entertained of our Saviour.—­Additional motives for prayer.—­David’s Mother’s prayer.—­Anecdote of Moses and a Woodcutter.—­Remarks upon the piety and devotion of the female Mussulmauns.

The Mussulmaun Lawgiver commanded Namaaz (daily prayer) five times a day: 

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