Jilaudar, Jalaudar, properly an attendant
holding the bridle
of a mounted officer or magnate.
 The afthaadah is a sun embroidered on crimson
velvet, both sides the
same, and fixed on a circular framework, about two yards in
circumference; this is attached to a silver or gold staff, the circle
deeply and fully flounced with gold brocade, or rich silk bound with
silver ribands. The person riding is sheltered from the rays of the
sun by the afthaadah being carried in an elevated position.
[Author.] (See p. 38.)
 Chobdar, ‘a stick-or staff-bearer’.
 Sontabardar, ‘a bearer of the silver stick or mace’.
 Chhata, a mark of dignity in the East.
 Danka, ‘a kettle-drum’.
 Loban, luban, frankincense, olibanum,
procured from various
species of Boswellia.
 As early as A.D. 1000 the people of Baghdad used
to throw dust and
ashes about the streets, and dress in black sackcloth on the
anniversary of the death of Husain (Ockley, History of the Saracens,
418). The custom was common among the Hebrews (Isaiah iii. 26, xlvii.
1; Job ii. 8, & c.). Robertson Smith suggests that the dust was
originally taken from the grave, and the ashes from the funeral pyre
(Religion, of the Semites, 413).
 Barqandaz, ‘lightning-darter’.
 Charkhi; the description is reproduced,
by Mrs. Parks, Wanderings of a Pilgrim, i. 299.
 The practice of offering food to the dead is
an Indian innovation on
Musalman practice; it is based on the Hindu custom of offering
flour-balls (pinda) to the spirit of the dead man.
 This was a Hebrew practice, condemned by the
prophets (2 Samuel
xv. 30; Ezekiel xxiv. 17).
 Tamjhan, thamjan, the Anglo-Indian ‘tonjon’
‘tomjohn’, the derivation of which is obscure. See Yule,
Hobson-Jobson, 930 f.
 Ill-feeling between Sunnis and Shi’ahs
is not universal in
India. ’Though the Sunnis consider the Shi’ah observances as
impious, they look on with the contempt of indifference. The fact that
the British Government punishes all who break the peace may have
something to do with this. Still the Sunni and the Shi’ah in
India live on much better terms, and have more respect for each other
than the Turk has for the Persian, or the Persian for the Turk. Some
Musalman poets, indeed, are both Sunnis and Shi’ahs.’—E.
Sell, The Faith of Islam, 292 f.; cf. p. 14.
Time.—How divided in Hindoostaun.—Observances after Mahurrum.—Luxuries and enjoyments resumed.—Black dye used by the ladies.—Their nose-ring.—Number of rings worn in their ears.—Mode of dressing their hair.—Aversion to our tooth-brushes.—Toilet of the ladies.—The Pyjaamahs.—The Ungeeah (bodice).—The Courtie.—The Deputtah.—Reception of a superior or elder amongst the ladies.—Their fondness for jewels.—Their shoes.—The state of society amongst the Mussulmaun ladies.—Their conversational endowments.—Remarks upon the fashion and duty of beards.