The Persian and Arabic authors, I have remarked, substitute Y for J in Scripture names; for instance, Jacob and Joseph are pronounced Yaacoob and Yeusuf. They also differ from us in some names commencing with A, as in Abba, which they pronounce Ubba (Father); for Amen, they say Aameen (the meaning strictly coinciding with ours); for Aaron, Aaroon; for Moses, Moosa. I am told by those who are intimate with both languages, that there is a great similarity between the Hebrew and Arabic. The passage in our Scripture ‘Eloi, Eloi, lama sabaethani,’ was interpreted to me by an Arabic scholar, as it is rendered in that well-remembered verse in the English translation.
 The Padshah Begam was the widow of Ghazi-ud-din
King of Oudh. On his death, in 1837, she contrived a plot to place his
putative son, Munna Jan, on the throne. After a fierce struggle in
the palace, the revolt was suppressed by the Resident, Colonel Low,
and his assistants, Captains Paton and Shakespear. The pair were
confined in the Chunar Fort till their deaths. See the graphic
narrative by Gen. Sleeman (Journey Through Oudh, ii. 172 ff.); also
H.C. Irwin (The Garden of India, 127 f.); Mrs. F. Parks (Wanderings
of a Pilgrim, ii. 114).
 Khawass, ‘distinguished’: special attendants.
 Mughlani, a Moghul woman: an attendant
in a zenana, a
 Chausa, chhahsa, not to be found in Platt’s
 The game of Pachisi, played on a cloth marked
in squares: see
Bombay Gazetteer, ix, part ii, 173.
 Gambling is one of the greater sins.—Sale,
Discourse, 89; Sells, Faith of Islam, 155.
 Fixed punkahs were introduced early in the nineteenth
 Firdausi, author of the Shahnama, died A.D. 1020
aged 89 years. An abridged translation, to which reference is made, by
J. Atkinson, was published in 1832. It has since been translated by
A.G. and E. Warner (1905), and by A. Rogers (1907).
 Shaikh Sa’di, born at Shiraz A.D. 1175,
died 1292, aged 120
lunar years. His chief works are the Gulistan and the Bostan.
 Khwaja Hafiz, Shams-ud-din Muhammad, author of
Diwan Hafiz, died at Shiraz A.D. 1389, where his tomb at
Musalla is the scene of pilgrimage; see E.G. Browne, A Year amongst
the Persians, 280 f.
 See p. 77.
 Ya’qub, Yusuf.
 Harun, Musa.