Lal, Estrelda amandava, the avadavat,
is so called because it
was brought to Europe from Ahmadabad.
 Atishbazi, fire-play.
 Holi, the spring festival of the Hindus, at which
lighted, coloured water thrown about, and much obscenity is practiced.
 See p. 161.
 Chabena, chabeni, what is munched or chewed (chabna).
 Tamashawala: tamashabin, a spectator of wonders.
 ‘Mr. Secretary.’
 It is generally believed snakes do not live apart
from their species;
if one is destroyed in a house, a second is anticipated and generally
 Dastur, dasturi, the percentage appropriated
 Saiqalgar, corrupted into sikligar, a polisher.
 Dahi khatai. There is no mystery
about the preparation.
Milk is boiled and soured by being poured into an earthen vessel in
which curds have previously been kept. Sometimes, but less frequently,
an acid or rennet is added to precipitate the solid ingredients of the
 Roshanai, ‘brightness’, made
of lampblack, gum-arabic, and
aloe juice. Elaborate prescriptions are given by Jaffur Shurreef
(Qanoon-e-Islam 150 f.).
 Lithography and printing are now commonly done by natives.
 Letters usually begin with, the invocation,
Bi’-smi’illahi’r-rahmani’r-rahim, ’In the name of Allah,
the Compassionate, the Merciful.’ The monogram ‘I’ is often
substituted, as being the initial of Allah, and the first letter of
 If the Koran were wrapped in a skin and thrown
into fire, it would
not burn, say the Traditions (Hughes, Dictionary of Islam, 521).
Compare the care taken by the Chinese to save paper on which writing
appears (J.H. Gray, China, i. 178).
 Surma, a black ore of antimony, a tersulphide
found in the
Panjab, often confused by natives with galena, and most of that
sold in bazars is really galena. It is used as a tonic to the nerves
of the eye, and to strengthen the sight.
Seclusion of Females.—Paadshah Begum.—The Suwaarree.—Female Bearers.—Eunuchs.—Rutts.—Partiality of the Ladies to Large retinues.—Female Companions.—Telling the Khaunie.—Games of the Zeenahnah.—Shampooing.—The Punkah.—Slaves and slavery.—Anecdote.—The Persian Poets.—Fierdowsee.—Saadie, his ’Goolistaun’.—Haafiz.—Mahumud Baarkur.—’Hyaatool Kaaloob’.—Different manner of pronouncing Scripture names...Page 248