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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 486 pages of information about Observations on the Mussulmauns of India.

[30] A common piece of imitative magic:  as the bird flies away it carries
    the disease with it.  The practice of releasing prisoners when the King
    or a member of his family was sick, or as a thanksgiving on recovery,
    was common.—­Sleeman, Journey, ii. 41.

[31] This is incorrect.  Imprisonment for debt is allowed by Muhammadan
    Law.—­Hughes, Dictionary of Islam, 82.

[32] This gives a too favourable account of the administration of justice
    in Oudh.  ’A powerful landlord during the Nawabi could evict a
    tenant, or enhance his rent, or take away his wife from him, or cut
    his head off, with as much, or as little, likelihood of being called
    to account by Na zim or Chakladar for one act as for another’
    (H.C.  Irwin, The Garden of India, 258).  Gen. Sleeman points out that
    Musalmans wore practically immune from the death penalty,
    particularly if they happened to kill a Sunni.  A Hindu, consenting
    after conviction to become a Musalman, was also immune (Journey
    Through Oudh
, i. 135).  Executions used constantly to occur in Lucknow
    under Nasir-ud-din (W.  Knighton, Private Life of an Eastern
    King
, 104).

LETTER XVI

Remarks on the trades and professions of Hindoostaun.—­The Bazaars.—­Naunbye (Bazaar cook).—­The Butcher, and other trades.—­Shroffs (Money-changers).—­Popular cries in Native cities.—­The articles enumerated and the venders of them described.—­The Cuppers.—­Leechwomen.—­Ear-cleaners.—­Old silver.—­Pickles.—­Confectionery.—­Toys.—­Fans.—­Vegetables and fruit.—­Mangoes.—­Melons.—­Mel
on-cyder.—­Fish.—­Bird-catcher.—­The Butcher-bird, the Coel, and Lollah.—­Fireworks.—­Parched corn.—­Wonder-workers.—­Snakes.—­Anecdote of the Moonshie and the Snake-catcher.—­The Cutler.—­Sour curds.—­Clotted cream.—­Butter.—­Singular process of the Natives in making butter.—­Ice.—­How procured in India.—­Ink.—­All writing dedicated to God by the Mussulmauns.—­The reverence for the name of God.—­The Mayndhie and Sulmah.

The various trades of a Native city in Hindoostaun are almost generally carried on in the open air.  The streets are narrow, and usually unpaved; the dukhauns[1] (shops) small, with the whole front open towards the street; a tattie[2] of coarse grass forming an awning to shelter the shopkeeper and his goods from the weather.  In the long lines of dukhauns the open fronts exhibit to the view the manufacturer, the artisan, the vender, in every variety of useful and ornamental articles for general use and consumption.  In one may be seen the naunbye[3] (bazaar cook) basting keebaubs[3] over a charcoal fire on the ground with one hand, and beating off the flies with a bunch of date-leaves in the other; beside him may be seen assistant cooks kneading dough for sheermaul[3] or other bread, or superintending sundry kettles and cauldrons of currie, pillau, matunjun,[3] &c., whilst others are equally active in preparing platters and trays, in order to forward the delicacies at the appointed hour to some great assembly.

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