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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 486 pages of information about Observations on the Mussulmauns of India.

[22] Qazi, a Muhammadan law officer.

[23] Karwan, a caravan.

[24] al-Hurr.

[25] This term is obscure.  Jaffur Shurreef (Qanoon-e-Islam, 107) says
    the plain of the martyrdom was called ‘Mareea’.  For ‘Hurth’ Prof.  E.G. 
    Browne suggests hirth, ‘a ploughed field’, or ard, ‘land’.  Sir C.
    Lyall suggests Al-hirah, the old Arabian capital which stood near
    the site of the later Kufah.

[26] Qasim.

[27] Sakinah, Hebrew Shechinah; Koobraah, Kibriya, ‘noble’.

[28] The Euphrates is called in Sumerian pura-num, ‘Great water’, whence
    Purat, Purattu in Semitic Babylonian; Perath in Hebrew; Frat or
    Furat in Arabic.

[29] ’Abbas, son of ’Ali.

[30] Mashk, Mashak, the Anglo-Indian Mussuck, a leathern skin for
    conveying water, in general use amongst Musalmans at this day in
    India; it is composed of the entire skin of a goat, properly prepared. 
    When filled with water it resembles a huge porpoise, on the back of
    the beeshtie [Bhishti] (water-carrier). [Author.]

[31] Kora, the fresh juice of Aloe vera, said to be cathartic and
    cooling.

[32] Sirki (Saccharum ciliare).

[33] Sabil:  see Burton, Pilgrimage, Memorial ed., i. 286.

[34] Shimar, whose name now means ‘contemptible’ among Shi’ahs.

[35] This statement is too wide.  ’Among Muhammadans themselves there is
    very little religious discussion, and Sunnis and Shi’ahs, who
    are at such deadly feud in many parts of Asia, including the Punjab
    and Kashmir, have, in Oudh, always freely intermarried’ (H.C.  Irwin,
    The Garden of India, 45).

[36] Kufah, four miles from Najaf, the capital of the Caliph ’Ali,
    which fell into decay when the government was removed to Baghdad.

[37] Confused with Al-judi, Mt.  Ararat, on which the Ark
    rested.—­Koran, xi. 46.

[38] Najaf al Sharif, or Mashhad ’Ali, 50 miles south of Karbala,
    the tomb and shrine of ’Ali.

[39] Ziyarat, ‘visitation’, especially to the tomb of the Prophet or
    that of a Muhammadan saint.  The pilgrim says, not ’I have visited the
    Prophet’s tomb’, but ‘I have visited the Prophet’. (Burton,
    Pilgrimage, i. 305.)

[40] The grave is said to be nine yards long:  according to others, much
    longer.  See the flippant remark of Burton, ibid., ii. 273 ff.

[41] Mir Haji Shah.

[42] Hajj, ‘setting out’.

LETTER II

Celebration of Mahurrum.—­The Tazia.—­Mussulmaun Cemeteries.—­An Emaum-baarah.—­Piety of the ladies.—­Self-inflicted abstinence and privations endured by each sex.—­Instances of the devotional zeal of the Mussulmauns.—­Attempted infringement on their religious formalities.—­The Resident at Lucknow.—­Enthusiastic ardour of the poor.—­Manner of celebrating the Mahurrum in opposition to the precepts of the Khoraun.—­Mosque and Emaum-baarah contrasted.—­The supposition of Mussulmauns practising idolatry confuted.

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