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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 290 pages of information about The Making of Arguments.

IV’.  Although it is urged that the corrupt element in politics would
have unlimited power if they should capture the commission, yet the
direct responsibility to the citizens will be a safeguard for the
enlarged power, for
     A’.  Every act of the city government will be known; since under the
         charter—­sections 24, 25, 29, 33—­
         1’.  The meetings of the council will be public.
         2’.  All resolutions are to be in writing and recorded.
         3’.  All votes are to be recorded.
         4’.  An itemized statement of receipts and expenditures must
             be printed and distributed every month.
         5’.  Ordinances making contracts or granting franchises must be
             published one week before final passage, and on petition may
             be referred to the people.
         6’.  In Des Moines under the new charter the newspapers give much
             space to the doings of the city government. McClure’s
             Magazine
, Vol.  XXXV, p. 101. 
     B’.  The provisions for a recall will be a check on corrupt officials;
         for
         1’.  In Des Moines a chief of police was retired on the suggestion
             of a recall for the commissioner who was responsible for his
             appointment. McClure’s Magazine, Vol.  XXXV, p. 101.
         2’.  In Seattle a mayor who made terms with the vicious element,
             and was in league with public service corporations, was
             recalled.  Daily papers, March, 1911.

CONCLUSION.

Wytown should adopt a commission government like that of Des
Moines; since

A. The admitted inefficiency of the city government at present is
due to the system of government;

    B. The adoption of the plan will result in important economies;

    C. The adoption of the plan will result in more efficient service to
    the city; and

    D. The direct responsibility of the mayor and councilmen to the
    citizens will be a safeguard for the increased power given to them.

CHAPTER III

EVIDENCE AND REASONING

27.  Evidence and Reasoning.  We have seen in the last chapter that the chief value of making a brief is that in the first place it lays out your reasoning so that you can scrutinize it in detail; and that in the second place it displays the foundations of your reasoning on facts which cannot be contested.  In this chapter we shall consider what grounds give validity to evidence and to reasoning.

Where the facts which you bring forward come from persons with first-hand knowledge of them, they are direct evidence; where you must establish them by reasoning from other facts they are indirect evidence, and in the latter case reasoning is an essential part of establishing the facts.  In this chapter, therefore, I shall speak first of direct evidence, then of indirect, and then pass on to consider a few of the simpler principles which govern reasoning.

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